Setup

Instructions for setting up a Kubernetes cluster.

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Running in Multiple Zones

Introduction

Kubernetes 1.2 adds support for running a single cluster in multiple failure zones (GCE calls them simply “zones”, AWS calls them “availability zones”, here we’ll refer to them as “zones”). This is a lightweight version of a broader Cluster Federation feature (previously referred to by the affectionate nickname “Ubernetes”). Full Cluster Federation allows combining separate Kubernetes clusters running in different regions or cloud providers (or on-premises data centers). However, many users simply want to run a more available Kubernetes cluster in multiple zones of their single cloud provider, and this is what the multizone support in 1.2 allows (this previously went by the nickname “Ubernetes Lite”).

Multizone support is deliberately limited: a single Kubernetes cluster can run in multiple zones, but only within the same region (and cloud provider). Only GCE and AWS are currently supported automatically (though it is easy to add similar support for other clouds or even bare metal, by simply arranging for the appropriate labels to be added to nodes and volumes).

Functionality

When nodes are started, the kubelet automatically adds labels to them with zone information.

Kubernetes will automatically spread the pods in a replication controller or service across nodes in a single-zone cluster (to reduce the impact of failures.) With multiple-zone clusters, this spreading behaviour is extended across zones (to reduce the impact of zone failures.) (This is achieved via SelectorSpreadPriority). This is a best-effort placement, and so if the zones in your cluster are heterogeneous (e.g. different numbers of nodes, different types of nodes, or different pod resource requirements), this might prevent perfectly even spreading of your pods across zones. If desired, you can use homogenous zones (same number and types of nodes) to reduce the probability of unequal spreading.

When persistent volumes are created, the PersistentVolumeLabel admission controller automatically adds zone labels to them. The scheduler (via the VolumeZonePredicate predicate) will then ensure that pods that claim a given volume are only placed into the same zone as that volume, as volumes cannot be attached across zones.

Limitations

There are some important limitations of the multizone support:

Walkthrough

We’re now going to walk through setting up and using a multi-zone cluster on both GCE & AWS. To do so, you bring up a full cluster (specifying MULTIZONE=true), and then you add nodes in additional zones by running kube-up again (specifying KUBE_USE_EXISTING_MASTER=true).

Bringing up your cluster

Create the cluster as normal, but pass MULTIZONE to tell the cluster to manage multiple zones; creating nodes in us-central1-a.

GCE:

curl -sS https://get.k8s.io | MULTIZONE=true KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=gce KUBE_GCE_ZONE=us-central1-a NUM_NODES=3 bash

AWS:

curl -sS https://get.k8s.io | MULTIZONE=true KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=aws KUBE_AWS_ZONE=us-west-2a NUM_NODES=3 bash

This step brings up a cluster as normal, still running in a single zone (but MULTIZONE=true has enabled multi-zone capabilities).

Nodes are labeled

View the nodes; you can see that they are labeled with zone information. They are all in us-central1-a (GCE) or us-west-2a (AWS) so far. The labels are failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region for the region, and failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone for the zone:

> kubectl get nodes --show-labels


NAME                     STATUS                     AGE   VERSION          LABELS
kubernetes-master        Ready,SchedulingDisabled   6m    v1.6.0+fff5156   beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-a,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-master
kubernetes-minion-87j9   Ready                      6m    v1.6.0+fff5156   beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-a,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-87j9
kubernetes-minion-9vlv   Ready                      6m    v1.6.0+fff5156   beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-a,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-9vlv
kubernetes-minion-a12q   Ready                      6m    v1.6.0+fff5156   beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-a,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-a12q

Add more nodes in a second zone

Let’s add another set of nodes to the existing cluster, reusing the existing master, running in a different zone (us-central1-b or us-west-2b). We run kube-up again, but by specifying KUBE_USE_EXISTING_MASTER=true kube-up will not create a new master, but will reuse one that was previously created instead.

GCE:

KUBE_USE_EXISTING_MASTER=true MULTIZONE=true KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=gce KUBE_GCE_ZONE=us-central1-b NUM_NODES=3 kubernetes/cluster/kube-up.sh

On AWS we also need to specify the network CIDR for the additional subnet, along with the master internal IP address:

KUBE_USE_EXISTING_MASTER=true MULTIZONE=true KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=aws KUBE_AWS_ZONE=us-west-2b NUM_NODES=3 KUBE_SUBNET_CIDR=172.20.1.0/24 MASTER_INTERNAL_IP=172.20.0.9 kubernetes/cluster/kube-up.sh

View the nodes again; 3 more nodes should have launched and be tagged in us-central1-b:

> kubectl get nodes --show-labels

NAME                     STATUS                     AGE   VERSION           LABELS
kubernetes-master        Ready,SchedulingDisabled   16m   v1.6.0+fff5156    beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-a,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-master
kubernetes-minion-281d   Ready                      2m    v1.6.0+fff5156    beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-b,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-281d
kubernetes-minion-87j9   Ready                      16m   v1.6.0+fff5156    beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-a,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-87j9
kubernetes-minion-9vlv   Ready                      16m   v1.6.0+fff5156    beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-a,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-9vlv
kubernetes-minion-a12q   Ready                      17m   v1.6.0+fff5156    beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-a,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-a12q
kubernetes-minion-pp2f   Ready                      2m    v1.6.0+fff5156    beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-b,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-pp2f
kubernetes-minion-wf8i   Ready                      2m    v1.6.0+fff5156    beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-b,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-wf8i

Volume affinity

Create a volume using the dynamic volume creation (only PersistentVolumes are supported for zone affinity):

kubectl create -f - <<EOF
{
  "kind": "PersistentVolumeClaim",
  "apiVersion": "v1",
  "metadata": {
    "name": "claim1",
    "annotations": {
        "volume.alpha.kubernetes.io/storage-class": "foo"
    }
  },
  "spec": {
    "accessModes": [
      "ReadWriteOnce"
    ],
    "resources": {
      "requests": {
        "storage": "5Gi"
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF

NOTE: For version 1.3+ Kubernetes will distribute dynamic PV claims across the configured zones. For version 1.2, dynamic persistent volumes were always created in the zone of the cluster master (here us-central1-a / us-west-2a); that issue (#23330) was addressed in 1.3+.

Now lets validate that Kubernetes automatically labeled the zone & region the PV was created in.

> kubectl get pv --show-labels
NAME           CAPACITY   ACCESSMODES   STATUS    CLAIM            REASON    AGE       LABELS
pv-gce-mj4gm   5Gi        RWO           Bound     default/claim1             46s       failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-a

So now we will create a pod that uses the persistent volume claim. Because GCE PDs / AWS EBS volumes cannot be attached across zones, this means that this pod can only be created in the same zone as the volume:

kubectl create -f - <<EOF
kind: Pod
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: mypod
spec:
  containers:
    - name: myfrontend
      image: nginx
      volumeMounts:
      - mountPath: "/var/www/html"
        name: mypd
  volumes:
    - name: mypd
      persistentVolumeClaim:
        claimName: claim1
EOF

Note that the pod was automatically created in the same zone as the volume, as cross-zone attachments are not generally permitted by cloud providers:

> kubectl describe pod mypod | grep Node
Node:        kubernetes-minion-9vlv/10.240.0.5
> kubectl get node kubernetes-minion-9vlv --show-labels
NAME                     STATUS    AGE    VERSION          LABELS
kubernetes-minion-9vlv   Ready     22m    v1.6.0+fff5156   beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-a,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-9vlv

Pods are spread across zones

Pods in a replication controller or service are automatically spread across zones. First, let’s launch more nodes in a third zone:

GCE:

KUBE_USE_EXISTING_MASTER=true MULTIZONE=true KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=gce KUBE_GCE_ZONE=us-central1-f NUM_NODES=3 kubernetes/cluster/kube-up.sh

AWS:

KUBE_USE_EXISTING_MASTER=true MULTIZONE=true KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=aws KUBE_AWS_ZONE=us-west-2c NUM_NODES=3 KUBE_SUBNET_CIDR=172.20.2.0/24 MASTER_INTERNAL_IP=172.20.0.9 kubernetes/cluster/kube-up.sh

Verify that you now have nodes in 3 zones:

kubectl get nodes --show-labels

Create the guestbook-go example, which includes an RC of size 3, running a simple web app:

find kubernetes/examples/guestbook-go/ -name '*.json' | xargs -I {} kubectl create -f {}

The pods should be spread across all 3 zones:

>  kubectl describe pod -l app=guestbook | grep Node
Node:        kubernetes-minion-9vlv/10.240.0.5
Node:        kubernetes-minion-281d/10.240.0.8
Node:        kubernetes-minion-olsh/10.240.0.11

 > kubectl get node kubernetes-minion-9vlv kubernetes-minion-281d kubernetes-minion-olsh --show-labels
NAME                     STATUS    AGE    VERSION          LABELS
kubernetes-minion-9vlv   Ready     34m    v1.6.0+fff5156   beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-a,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-9vlv
kubernetes-minion-281d   Ready     20m    v1.6.0+fff5156   beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-b,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-281d
kubernetes-minion-olsh   Ready     3m     v1.6.0+fff5156   beta.kubernetes.io/instance-type=n1-standard-2,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/region=us-central1,failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone=us-central1-f,kubernetes.io/hostname=kubernetes-minion-olsh

Load-balancers span all zones in a cluster; the guestbook-go example includes an example load-balanced service:

> kubectl describe service guestbook | grep LoadBalancer.Ingress
LoadBalancer Ingress:   130.211.126.21

> ip=130.211.126.21

> curl -s http://${ip}:3000/env | grep HOSTNAME
  "HOSTNAME": "guestbook-44sep",

> (for i in `seq 20`; do curl -s http://${ip}:3000/env | grep HOSTNAME; done)  | sort | uniq
  "HOSTNAME": "guestbook-44sep",
  "HOSTNAME": "guestbook-hum5n",
  "HOSTNAME": "guestbook-ppm40",

The load balancer correctly targets all the pods, even though they are in multiple zones.

Shutting down the cluster

When you’re done, clean up:

GCE:

KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=gce KUBE_USE_EXISTING_MASTER=true KUBE_GCE_ZONE=us-central1-f kubernetes/cluster/kube-down.sh
KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=gce KUBE_USE_EXISTING_MASTER=true KUBE_GCE_ZONE=us-central1-b kubernetes/cluster/kube-down.sh
KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=gce KUBE_GCE_ZONE=us-central1-a kubernetes/cluster/kube-down.sh

AWS:

KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=aws KUBE_USE_EXISTING_MASTER=true KUBE_AWS_ZONE=us-west-2c kubernetes/cluster/kube-down.sh
KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=aws KUBE_USE_EXISTING_MASTER=true KUBE_AWS_ZONE=us-west-2b kubernetes/cluster/kube-down.sh
KUBERNETES_PROVIDER=aws KUBE_AWS_ZONE=us-west-2a kubernetes/cluster/kube-down.sh

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