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Scheduler Performance Tuning

FEATURE STATE: Kubernetes 1.12 alpha
This feature is currently in a alpha state, meaning:

  • The version names contain alpha (e.g. v1alpha1).
  • Might be buggy. Enabling the feature may expose bugs. Disabled by default.
  • Support for feature may be dropped at any time without notice.
  • The API may change in incompatible ways in a later software release without notice.
  • Recommended for use only in short-lived testing clusters, due to increased risk of bugs and lack of long-term support.

Kube-scheduler is the Kubernetes default scheduler. It is responsible for placement of Pods on Nodes in a cluster. Nodes in a cluster that meet the scheduling requirements of a Pod are called “feasible” Nodes for the Pod. The scheduler finds feasible Nodes for a Pod and then runs a set of functions to score the feasible Nodes and picks a Node with the highest score among the feasible ones to run the Pod. The scheduler then notifies the API server about this decision in a process called “Binding”.

Percentage of Nodes to Score

Before Kubernetes 1.12, Kube-scheduler used to check the feasibility of all the nodes in a cluster and then scored the feasible ones. Kubernetes 1.12 has a new feature that allows the scheduler to stop looking for more feasible nodes once it finds a certain number of them. This improves the scheduler’s performance in large clusters. The number is specified as a percentage of the cluster size and is controlled by a configuration option called percentageOfNodesToScore. The range should be between 1 and 100. Other values are considered as 100%. The default value of this option is 50%. A cluster administrator can change this value by providing a different value in the scheduler configuration. However, it may not be necessary to change this value.

apiVersion: componentconfig/v1alpha1
kind: KubeSchedulerConfiguration
algorithmSource:
  provider: DefaultProvider

...

percentageOfNodesToScore: 50
Note: In clusters with zero or less than 50 feasible nodes, the scheduler still checks all the nodes, simply because there are not enough feasible nodes to stop the scheduler’s search early.

To disable this feature, you can set percentageOfNodesToScore to 100.

Tuning percentageOfNodesToScore

percentageOfNodesToScore must be a value between 1 and 100 with the default value of 50. There is also a hardcoded minimum value of 50 nodes which is applied internally. The scheduler tries to find at least 50 nodes regardless of the value of percentageOfNodesToScore. This means that changing this option to lower values in clusters with several hundred nodes will not have much impact on the number of feasible nodes that the scheduler tries to find. This is intentional as this option is unlikely to improve performance noticeably in smaller clusters. In large clusters with over a 1000 nodes setting this value to lower numbers may show a noticeable performance improvement.

An important note to consider when setting this value is that when a smaller number of nodes in a cluster are checked for feasibility, some nodes are not sent to be scored for a given Pod. As a result, a Node which could possibly score a higher value for running the given Pod might not even be passed to the scoring phase. This would result in a less than ideal placement of the Pod. For this reason, the value should not be set to very low percentages. A general rule of thumb is to never set the value to anything lower than 30. Lower values should be used only when the scheduler’s throughput is critical for your application and the score of nodes is not important. In other words, you prefer to run the Pod on any Node as long as it is feasible.

It is not recommended to lower this value from its default if your cluster has only several hundred Nodes. It is unlikely to improve the scheduler’s performance significantly.

How the scheduler iterates over Nodes

This section is intended for those who want to understand the internal details of this feature.

In order to give all the Nodes in a cluster a fair chance of being considered for running Pods, the scheduler iterates over the nodes in a round robin fashion. You can imagine that Nodes are in an array. The scheduler starts from the start of the array and checks feasibility of the nodes until it finds enough Nodes as specified by percentageOfNodesToScore. For the next Pod, the scheduler continues from the point in the Node array that it stopped at when checking feasibility of Nodes for the previous Pod.

If Nodes are in multiple zones, the scheduler iterates over Nodes in various zones to ensure that Nodes from different zones are considered in the feasibility checks. As an example, consider six nodes in two zones:

Zone 1: Node 1, Node 2, Node 3, Node 4
Zone 2: Node 5, Node 6

The Scheduler evaluates feasibility of the nodes in this order:

Node 1, Node 5, Node 2, Node 6, Node 3, Node 4

After going over all the Nodes, it goes back to Node 1.