In Kubernetes, a VolumeSnapshot represents a snapshot of a volume on a storage system. This document assumes that you are already familiar with Kubernetes persistent volumes.
Similar to how API resources
PersistentVolumeClaim are used to provision volumes for users and administrators,
VolumeSnapshot API resources are provided to create volume snapshots for users and administrators.
VolumeSnapshotContent is a snapshot taken from a volume in the cluster that has been provisioned by an administrator. It is a resource in the cluster just like a PersistentVolume is a cluster resource.
VolumeSnapshot is a request for snapshot of a volume by a user. It is similar to a PersistentVolumeClaim.
VolumeSnapshotClass allows you to specify different attributes belonging to a
VolumeSnapshot. These attributes may differ among snapshots taken from the same volume on the storage system and therefore cannot be expressed by using the same
StorageClass of a
Volume snapshots provide Kubernetes users with a standardized way to copy a volume's contents at a particular point in time without creating an entirely new volume. This functionality enables, for example, database administrators to backup databases before performing edit or delete modifications.
Users need to be aware of the following when using this feature:
- API Objects
VolumeSnapshotClassare CRDs, not part of the core API.
VolumeSnapshotsupport is only available for CSI drivers.
- As part of the deployment process of
VolumeSnapshot, the Kubernetes team provides a snapshot controller to be deployed into the control plane, and a sidecar helper container called csi-snapshotter to be deployed together with the CSI driver. The snapshot controller watches
VolumeSnapshotContentobjects and is responsible for the creation and deletion of
VolumeSnapshotContentobject. The sidecar csi-snapshotter watches
VolumeSnapshotContentobjects and triggers
DeleteSnapshotoperations against a CSI endpoint.
- There is also a validating webhook server which provides tightened validation on snapshot objects. This should be installed by the Kubernetes distros along with the snapshot controller and CRDs, not CSI drivers. It should be installed in all Kubernetes clusters that has the snapshot feature enabled.
- CSI drivers may or may not have implemented the volume snapshot functionality. The CSI drivers that have provided support for volume snapshot will likely use the csi-snapshotter. See CSI Driver documentation for details.
- The CRDs and snapshot controller installations are the responsibility of the Kubernetes distribution.
Lifecycle of a volume snapshot and volume snapshot content
VolumeSnapshotContents are resources in the cluster.
VolumeSnapshots are requests for those resources. The interaction between
VolumeSnapshots follow this lifecycle:
Provisioning Volume Snapshot
There are two ways snapshots may be provisioned: pre-provisioned or dynamically provisioned.
A cluster administrator creates a number of
VolumeSnapshotContents. They carry the details of the real volume snapshot on the storage system which is available for use by cluster users. They exist in the Kubernetes API and are available for consumption.
Instead of using a pre-existing snapshot, you can request that a snapshot to be dynamically taken from a PersistentVolumeClaim. The VolumeSnapshotClass specifies storage provider-specific parameters to use when taking a snapshot.
The snapshot controller handles the binding of a
VolumeSnapshot object with an appropriate
VolumeSnapshotContent object, in both pre-provisioned and dynamically provisioned scenarios. The binding is a one-to-one mapping.
In the case of pre-provisioned binding, the VolumeSnapshot will remain unbound until the requested VolumeSnapshotContent object is created.
Persistent Volume Claim as Snapshot Source Protection
The purpose of this protection is to ensure that in-use PersistentVolumeClaim API objects are not removed from the system while a snapshot is being taken from it (as this may result in data loss).
While a snapshot is being taken of a PersistentVolumeClaim, that PersistentVolumeClaim is in-use. If you delete a PersistentVolumeClaim API object in active use as a snapshot source, the PersistentVolumeClaim object is not removed immediately. Instead, removal of the PersistentVolumeClaim object is postponed until the snapshot is readyToUse or aborted.
Deletion is triggered by deleting the
VolumeSnapshot object, and the
DeletionPolicy will be followed. If the
Delete, then the underlying storage snapshot will be deleted along with the
VolumeSnapshotContent object. If the
Retain, then both the underlying snapshot and
Each VolumeSnapshot contains a spec and a status.
apiVersion: snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1 kind: VolumeSnapshot metadata: name: new-snapshot-test spec: volumeSnapshotClassName: csi-hostpath-snapclass source: persistentVolumeClaimName: pvc-test
persistentVolumeClaimName is the name of the PersistentVolumeClaim data source for the snapshot. This field is required for dynamically provisioning a snapshot.
A volume snapshot can request a particular class by specifying the name of a
using the attribute
volumeSnapshotClassName. If nothing is set, then the default class is used if available.
For pre-provisioned snapshots, you need to specify a
volumeSnapshotContentName as the source for the snapshot as shown in the following example. The
volumeSnapshotContentName source field is required for pre-provisioned snapshots.
apiVersion: snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1 kind: VolumeSnapshot metadata: name: test-snapshot spec: source: volumeSnapshotContentName: test-content
Volume Snapshot Contents
Each VolumeSnapshotContent contains a spec and status. In dynamic provisioning, the snapshot common controller creates
VolumeSnapshotContent objects. Here is an example:
apiVersion: snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1 kind: VolumeSnapshotContent metadata: name: snapcontent-72d9a349-aacd-42d2-a240-d775650d2455 spec: deletionPolicy: Delete driver: hostpath.csi.k8s.io source: volumeHandle: ee0cfb94-f8d4-11e9-b2d8-0242ac110002 sourceVolumeMode: Filesystem volumeSnapshotClassName: csi-hostpath-snapclass volumeSnapshotRef: name: new-snapshot-test namespace: default uid: 72d9a349-aacd-42d2-a240-d775650d2455
volumeHandle is the unique identifier of the volume created on the storage backend and returned by the CSI driver during the volume creation. This field is required for dynamically provisioning a snapshot. It specifies the volume source of the snapshot.
For pre-provisioned snapshots, you (as cluster administrator) are responsible for creating the
VolumeSnapshotContent object as follows.
apiVersion: snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1 kind: VolumeSnapshotContent metadata: name: new-snapshot-content-test spec: deletionPolicy: Delete driver: hostpath.csi.k8s.io source: snapshotHandle: 7bdd0de3-aaeb-11e8-9aae-0242ac110002 sourceVolumeMode: Filesystem volumeSnapshotRef: name: new-snapshot-test namespace: default
snapshotHandle is the unique identifier of the volume snapshot created on the storage backend. This field is required for the pre-provisioned snapshots. It specifies the CSI snapshot id on the storage system that this
sourceVolumeMode is the mode of the volume whose snapshot is taken. The value
sourceVolumeMode field can be either
Block. If the
source volume mode is not specified, Kubernetes treats the snapshot as if the
source volume's mode is unknown.
Converting the volume mode of a Snapshot
VolumeSnapshots API installed on your cluster supports the
field, then the API has the capability to prevent unauthorized users from converting
the mode of a volume.
To check if your cluster has capability for this feature, run the following command:
$ kubectl get crd volumesnapshotcontent -o yaml
If you want to allow users to create a
PersistentVolumeClaim from an existing
VolumeSnapshot, but with a different volume mode than the source, the annotation
snapshot.storage.kubernetes.io/allowVolumeModeChange: "true"needs to be added to
VolumeSnapshotContent that corresponds to the
For pre-provisioned snapshots,
Spec.SourceVolumeMode needs to be populated
by the cluster administrator.
VolumeSnapshotContent resource with this feature enabled would look like:
apiVersion: snapshot.storage.k8s.io/v1 kind: VolumeSnapshotContent metadata: name: new-snapshot-content-test annotations: - snapshot.storage.kubernetes.io/allowVolumeModeChange: "true" spec: deletionPolicy: Delete driver: hostpath.csi.k8s.io source: snapshotHandle: 7bdd0de3-aaeb-11e8-9aae-0242ac110002 sourceVolumeMode: Filesystem volumeSnapshotRef: name: new-snapshot-test namespace: default
Provisioning Volumes from Snapshots
You can provision a new volume, pre-populated with data from a snapshot, by using
the dataSource field in the
For more details, see Volume Snapshot and Restore Volume from Snapshot.