Kubernetes v1.8 [beta]
A CronJob creates Jobs on a repeating schedule.
One CronJob object is like one line of a crontab (cron table) file. It runs a job periodically on a given schedule, written in Cron format.
schedule:times are based on the timezone of the kube-controller-manager.
If your control plane runs the kube-controller-manager in Pods or bare containers, the timezone set for the kube-controller-manager container determines the timezone that the cron job controller uses.
When creating the manifest for a CronJob resource, make sure the name you provide is a valid DNS subdomain name. The name must be no longer than 52 characters. This is because the CronJob controller will automatically append 11 characters to the job name provided and there is a constraint that the maximum length of a Job name is no more than 63 characters.
CronJobs are useful for creating periodic and recurring tasks, like running backups or sending emails. CronJobs can also schedule individual tasks for a specific time, such as scheduling a Job for when your cluster is likely to be idle.
This example CronJob manifest prints the current time and a hello message every minute:
apiVersion: batch/v1beta1 kind: CronJob metadata: name: hello spec: schedule: "*/1 * * * *" jobTemplate: spec: template: spec: containers: - name: hello image: busybox imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent args: - /bin/sh - -c - date; echo Hello from the Kubernetes cluster restartPolicy: OnFailure
(Running Automated Tasks with a CronJob takes you through this example in more detail).
Cron schedule syntax
# ┌───────────── minute (0 - 59) # │ ┌───────────── hour (0 - 23) # │ │ ┌───────────── day of the month (1 - 31) # │ │ │ ┌───────────── month (1 - 12) # │ │ │ │ ┌───────────── day of the week (0 - 6) (Sunday to Saturday; # │ │ │ │ │ 7 is also Sunday on some systems) # │ │ │ │ │ # │ │ │ │ │ # * * * * *
|@yearly (or @annually)||Run once a year at midnight of 1 January||0 0 1 1 *|
|@monthly||Run once a month at midnight of the first day of the month||0 0 1 * *|
|@weekly||Run once a week at midnight on Sunday morning||0 0 * * 0|
|@daily (or @midnight)||Run once a day at midnight||0 0 * * *|
|@hourly||Run once an hour at the beginning of the hour||0 * * * *|
For example, the line below states that the task must be started every Friday at midnight, as well as on the 13th of each month at midnight:
0 0 13 * 5
To generate CronJob schedule expressions, you can also use web tools like crontab.guru.
A cron job creates a job object about once per execution time of its schedule. We say "about" because there are certain circumstances where two jobs might be created, or no job might be created. We attempt to make these rare, but do not completely prevent them. Therefore, jobs should be idempotent.
startingDeadlineSeconds is set to a large value or left unset (the default)
concurrencyPolicy is set to
Allow, the jobs will always run
at least once.
For every CronJob, the CronJob Controller checks how many schedules it missed in the duration from its last scheduled time until now. If there are more than 100 missed schedules, then it does not start the job and logs the error
Cannot determine if job needs to be started. Too many missed start time (> 100). Set or decrease .spec.startingDeadlineSeconds or check clock skew.
It is important to note that if the
startingDeadlineSeconds field is set (not
nil), the controller counts how many missed jobs occurred from the value of
startingDeadlineSeconds until now rather than from the last scheduled time until now. For example, if
200, the controller counts how many missed jobs occurred in the last 200 seconds.
A CronJob is counted as missed if it has failed to be created at its scheduled time. For example, If
concurrencyPolicy is set to
Forbid and a CronJob was attempted to be scheduled when there was a previous schedule still running, then it would count as missed.
For example, suppose a CronJob is set to schedule a new Job every one minute beginning at
08:30:00, and its
startingDeadlineSeconds field is not set. If the CronJob controller happens to
be down from
10:21:00, the job will not start as the number of missed jobs which missed their schedule is greater than 100.
To illustrate this concept further, suppose a CronJob is set to schedule a new Job every one minute beginning at
08:30:00, and its
startingDeadlineSeconds is set to 200 seconds. If the CronJob controller happens to
be down for the same period as the previous example (
10:21:00,) the Job will still start at 10:22:00. This happens as the controller now checks how many missed schedules happened in the last 200 seconds (ie, 3 missed schedules), rather than from the last scheduled time until now.
The CronJob is only responsible for creating Jobs that match its schedule, and the Job in turn is responsible for the management of the Pods it represents.
There's an alternative implementation of the CronJob controller, available as an alpha feature since Kubernetes 1.20. To select version 2 of the CronJob controller, pass the following feature gate flag to the kube-controller-manager.
Cron expression format
documents the format of CronJob
For instructions on creating and working with cron jobs, and for an example of CronJob manifest, see Running automated tasks with cron jobs.