In addition to the standard Hugo shortcodes, we use a number of
custom Hugo shortcodes in our
documentation to control the presentation of content.
Documentation source is available in multiple languages in /content/. Each
language has its own folder with a two-letter code determined by the
ISO 639-1 standard
. For example, English documentation source is stored in /content/en/docs/.
For more information about contributing to documentation in multiple languages
or starting a new translation,
Pull requests from contributors who haven't signed the CLA fail the automated
tests. The name and email you provide must match those found in
your git config, and your git name and email must match those used for the
Choose which Git branch to use
When opening a pull request, you need to know in advance which branch to base
your work on.
Existing or new English language content for the current release
Content for a feature change release
The branch which corresponds to the major and minor version the feature change is in, using the pattern dev-<version>. For example, if a feature changes in the v1.27 release, then add documentation changes to the dev-1.27 branch.
If you're less experienced with git workflows, here's an easier method of
opening a pull request. Figure 1 outlines the steps and the details follow.
Figure 1. Steps for opening a PR using GitHub.
On the page where you see the issue, select the pencil icon at the top right.
You can also scroll to the bottom of the page and select Edit this page.
Make your changes in the GitHub markdown editor.
Below the editor, fill in the Propose file change form.
In the first field, give your commit message a title.
In the second field, provide a description.
Note: Do not use any GitHub Keywords
in your commit message. You can add those to the pull request description later.
Select Propose file change.
Select Create pull request.
The Open a pull request screen appears. Fill in the form:
The Subject field of the pull request defaults to the commit summary.
You can change it if needed.
The Body contains your extended commit message, if you have one,
and some template text. Add the
details the template text asks for, then delete the extra template text.
Leave the Allow edits from maintainers checkbox selected.
Note: PR descriptions are a great way to help reviewers understand your change.
For more information, see Opening a PR.
Select Create pull request.
Addressing feedback in GitHub
Before merging a pull request, Kubernetes community members review and
approve it. The k8s-ci-robot suggests reviewers based on the nearest
owner mentioned in the pages. If you have someone specific in mind,
leave a comment with their GitHub username in it.
If a reviewer asks you to make changes:
Go to the Files changed tab.
Select the pencil (edit) icon on any files changed by the pull request.
Make the changes requested.
Commit the changes.
If you are waiting on a reviewer, reach out once every 7 days. You can also post a message in the
#sig-docs Slack channel.
When your review is complete, a reviewer merges your PR and your changes go live a few minutes later.
Work from a local fork
If you're more experienced with git, or if your changes are larger than a few lines,
work from a local fork.
Make sure you have git installed
on your computer. You can also use a git UI application.
Figure 2 shows the steps to follow when you work from a local fork. The details for each step follow.
Figure 2. Working from a local fork to make your changes.
For new features in an upcoming Kubernetes release, use the feature branch. For more
information, see documenting for a release.
For long-running efforts that multiple SIG Docs contributors collaborate on,
like content reorganization, use a specific feature branch created for that effort.
If you need help choosing a branch, ask in the #sig-docs Slack channel.
Create a new branch based on the branch identified in step 1. This example assumes the base
branch is upstream/main:
git checkout -b <my_new_branch> upstream/main
Make your changes using a text editor.
At any time, use the git status command to see what files you've changed.
Commit your changes
When you are ready to submit a pull request, commit your changes.
In your local repository, check which files you need to commit:
Output is similar to:
On branch <my_new_branch>
Your branch is up to date with 'origin/<my_new_branch>'.
Changes not staged for commit:
(use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
(use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory)
no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
Add the files listed under Changes not staged for commit to the commit:
git add <your_file_name>
Repeat this for each file.
After adding all the files, create a commit:
git commit -m "Your commit message"
Note: Do not use any GitHub Keywords
in your commit message. You can add those to the pull request
Push your local branch and its new commit to your remote fork:
git push origin <my_new_branch>
Preview your changes locally
It's a good idea to preview your changes locally before pushing them or opening a pull request.
A preview lets you catch build errors or markdown formatting problems.
You can either build the website's container image or run Hugo locally. Building the container
image is slower but displays Hugo shortcodes, which can
be useful for debugging.
From the head repository drop-down menu, select your fork.
From the compare drop-down menu, select your branch.
Select Create Pull Request.
Add a description for your pull request:
Title (50 characters or less): Summarize the intent of the change.
Description: Describe the change in more detail.
If there is a related GitHub issue, include Fixes #12345 or Closes #12345 in the
description. GitHub's automation closes the mentioned issue after merging the PR if used.
If there are other related PRs, link those as well.
If you want advice on something specific, include any questions you'd like reviewers to
think about in your description.
Select the Create pull request button.
Congratulations! Your pull request is available in Pull requests.
After opening a PR, GitHub runs automated tests and tries to deploy a preview using
If the Netlify build fails, select Details for more information.
If the Netlify build succeeds, select Details opens a staged version of the Kubernetes
website with your changes applied. This is how reviewers check your changes.
GitHub also automatically assigns labels to a PR, to help reviewers. You can add them too, if
needed. For more information, see Adding and removing issue labels.
Addressing feedback locally
After making your changes, amend your previous commit:
git commit -a --amend
-a: commits all changes
--amend: amends the previous commit, rather than creating a new one
Update your commit message if needed.
Use git push origin <my_new_branch> to push your changes and re-run the Netlify tests.
Note: If you use git commit -m instead of amending, you must squash your commits
Changes from reviewers
Sometimes reviewers commit to your pull request. Before making any other changes, fetch those commits.
Fetch commits from your remote fork and rebase your working branch:
git fetch origin
git rebase origin/<your-branch-name>
After rebasing, force-push new changes to your fork:
If your PR has multiple commits, you must squash them into a single commit before merging your PR.
You can check the number of commits on your PR's Commits tab or by running the git log
Note: This topic assumes vim as the command line text editor.
Start an interactive rebase:
git rebase -i HEAD~<number_of_commits_in_branch>
Squashing commits is a form of rebasing. The -i switch tells git you want to rebase interactively.
HEAD~<number_of_commits_in_branch indicates how many commits to look at for the rebase.
Output is similar to:
pick d875112ca Original commit
pick 4fa167b80 Address feedback 1
pick 7d54e15ee Address feedback 2
# Rebase 3d18sf680..7d54e15ee onto 3d183f680 (3 commands)
# These lines can be re-ordered; they are executed from top to bottom.
The first section of the output lists the commits in the rebase. The second section lists the
options for each commit. Changing the word pick changes the status of the commit once the rebase
For the purposes of rebasing, focus on squash and pick.
This squashes commits 4fa167b80 Address feedback 1 and 7d54e15ee Address feedback 2 into
d875112ca Original commit, leaving only d875112ca Original commit as a part of the timeline.
Save and exit your file.
Push your squashed commit:
git push --force-with-lease origin <branch_name>
Contribute to other repos
The Kubernetes project contains 50+ repositories. Many of these
repositories contain documentation: user-facing help text, error messages, API references or code
If you see text you'd like to improve, use GitHub to search all repositories in the Kubernetes
organization. This can help you figure out where to submit your issue or PR.
Each repository has its own processes and procedures. Before you file an issue or submit a PR,
read that repository's README.md, CONTRIBUTING.md, and code-of-conduct.md, if they exist.
Most repositories use issue and PR templates. Have a look through some open issues and PRs to get
a feel for that team's processes. Make sure to fill out the templates with as much detail as
possible when you file issues or PRs.
Read Reviewing to learn more about the review process.
2 - Documenting a feature for a release
Each major Kubernetes release introduces new features that require documentation. New releases also bring updates to existing features and documentation (such as upgrading a feature from alpha to beta).
Generally, the SIG responsible for a feature submits draft documentation of the
feature as a pull request to the appropriate development branch of the
kubernetes/website repository, and someone on the SIG Docs team provides
editorial feedback or edits the draft directly. This section covers the branching
conventions and process used during a release by both groups.
For documentation contributors
In general, documentation contributors don't write content from scratch for a release.
Instead, they work with the SIG creating a new feature to refine the draft documentation and make it release ready.
After you've chosen a feature to document or assist, ask about it in the #sig-docs
Slack channel, in a weekly SIG Docs meeting, or directly on the PR filed by the
feature SIG. If you're given the go-ahead, you can edit into the PR using one of
the techniques described in
Commit into another person's PR.
Find out about upcoming features
To find out about upcoming features, attend the weekly SIG Release meeting (see
the community page for upcoming meetings)
and monitor the release-specific documentation
in the kubernetes/sig-release
repository. Each release has a sub-directory in the /sig-release/tree/master/releases/
directory. The sub-directory contains a release schedule, a draft of the release
notes, and a document listing each person on the release team.
The release schedule contains links to all other documents, meetings,
meeting minutes, and milestones relating to the release. It also contains
information about the goals and timeline of the release, and any special
processes in place for this release. Near the bottom of the document, several
release-related terms are defined.
This document also contains a link to the Feature tracking sheet, which is
the official way to find out about all new features scheduled to go into the
The release team document lists who is responsible for each release role. If
it's not clear who to talk to about a specific feature or question you have,
either attend the release meeting to ask your question, or contact the release
lead so that they can redirect you.
The release notes draft is a good place to find out about
specific features, changes, deprecations, and more about the release. The
content is not finalized until late in the release cycle, so use caution.
Feature tracking sheet
The feature tracking sheet for a given Kubernetes release
lists each feature that is planned for a release.
Each line item includes the name of the feature, a link to the feature's main
GitHub issue, its stability level (Alpha, Beta, or Stable), the SIG and
individual responsible for implementing it, whether it
needs docs, a draft release note for the feature, and whether it has been
merged. Keep the following in mind:
Beta and Stable features are generally a higher documentation priority than
It's hard to test (and therefore to document) a feature that hasn't been merged,
or is at least considered feature-complete in its PR.
Determining whether a feature needs documentation is a manual process. Even if
a feature is not marked as needing docs, you may need to document the feature.
For developers or other SIG members
This section is information for members of other Kubernetes SIGs documenting new features
for a release.
If you are a member of a SIG developing a new feature for Kubernetes, you need
to work with SIG Docs to be sure your feature is documented in time for the
release. Check the
feature tracking spreadsheet
or check in the #sig-release Kubernetes Slack channel to verify scheduling details and
Open a placeholder PR
Open a draft pull request against the
dev-1.27 branch in the kubernetes/website repository, with a small
commit that you will amend later. To create a draft pull request, use the
Create Pull Request drop-down and select Create Draft Pull Request,
then click Draft Pull Request.
Leave a comment on the related kubernetes/enhancements
issue with a link to the PR to notify the docs person managing this release that
the feature docs are coming and should be tracked for the release.
If your feature does not need
any documentation changes, make sure the sig-release team knows this, by
mentioning it in the #sig-release Slack channel. If the feature does need
documentation but the PR is not created, the feature may be removed from the
PR ready for review
When ready, populate your placeholder PR with feature documentation and change
the state of the PR from draft to ready for review. To mark a pull request
as ready for review, navigate to the merge box and click Ready for review.
Do your best to describe your feature and how to use it. If you need help structuring your documentation, ask in the #sig-docs Slack channel.
When you complete your content, the documentation person assigned to your feature reviews it.
To ensure technical accuracy, the content may also require a technical review from corresponding SIG(s).
Use their suggestions to get the content to a release ready state.
If your feature needs documentation and the first draft
content is not received, the feature may be removed from the milestone.
All PRs reviewed and ready to merge
If your PR has not yet been merged into the dev-1.27 branch by the release deadline, work with the
docs person managing the release to get it in by the deadline. If your feature needs
documentation and the docs are not ready, the feature may be removed from the
3 - Submitting blog posts and case studies
Anyone can write a blog post and submit it for review.
Case studies require extensive review before they're approved.
The Kubernetes Blog
The Kubernetes blog is used by the project to communicate new features, community reports, and any
news that might be relevant to the Kubernetes community. This includes end users and developers.
Most of the blog's content is about things happening in the core project, but we encourage you to
submit about things happening elsewhere in the ecosystem too!
Anyone can write a blog post and submit it for review.
Submit a Post
Blog posts should not be commercial in nature and should consist of original content that applies
broadly to the Kubernetes community. Appropriate blog content includes:
New Kubernetes capabilities
Kubernetes projects updates
Updates from Special Interest Groups
Tutorials and walkthroughs
Thought leadership around Kubernetes
Kubernetes Partner OSS integration
Original content only
Unsuitable content includes:
Vendor product pitches
Partner updates without an integration and customer story
Write out your blog post in a text editor of your choice.
On the same link from step 2, click the Create new file button. Paste your content into the editor.
Name the file to match the proposed title of the blog post, but don’t put the date in the file name.
The blog reviewers will work with you on the final file name and the date the blog will be published.
When you save the file, GitHub will walk you through the pull request process.
A blog post reviewer will review your submission and work with you on feedback and final details.
When the blog post is approved, the blog will be scheduled for publication.
Guidelines and expectations
Blog posts should not be vendor pitches.
Articles must contain content that applies broadly to the Kubernetes community. For example, a
submission should focus on upstream Kubernetes as opposed to vendor-specific configurations.
Check the Documentation style guide for
what is typically allowed on Kubernetes properties.
Links should primarily be to the official Kubernetes documentation. When using external
references, links should be diverse - For example a submission shouldn't contain only links
back to a single company's blog.
Sometimes this is a delicate balance. The blog team
is there to give guidance on whether a post is appropriate for the Kubernetes blog, so don't
hesitate to reach out.
Blog posts are not published on specific dates.
Articles are reviewed by community volunteers. We'll try our best to accommodate specific
timing, but we make no guarantees.
Many core parts of the Kubernetes projects submit blog posts during release windows, delaying
publication times. Consider submitting during a quieter period of the release cycle.
If you are looking for greater coordination on post release dates, coordinating with
CNCF marketing is a more appropriate choice than submitting a blog post.
Sometimes reviews can get backed up. If you feel your review isn't getting the attention it needs,
you can reach out to the blog team on the #sig-docs-blog Slack channel
to ask in real time.
Blog posts should be relevant to Kubernetes users.
Topics related to participation in or results of Kubernetes SIGs activities are always on
topic (see the work in the Contributor Comms Team
for support on these posts).
The components of Kubernetes are purposely modular, so tools that use existing integration
points like CNI and CSI are on topic.
Posts about other CNCF projects may or may not be on topic. We recommend asking the blog team
before submitting a draft.
Many CNCF projects have their own blog. These are often a better choice for posts. There are
times of major feature or milestone for a CNCF project that users would be interested in
reading on the Kubernetes blog.
The official blog is not for repurposing existing content from a third party as new content.
The license for the blog allows
commercial use of the content for commercial purposes, but not the other way around.
Blog posts should aim to be future proof
Given the development velocity of the project, we want evergreen content that won't require
updates to stay accurate for the reader.
It can be a better choice to add a tutorial or update official documentation than to write a
high level overview as a blog post.
Consider concentrating the long technical content as a call to action of the blog post, and
focus on the problem space or why readers should care.
Technical Considerations for submitting a blog post
Submissions need to be in Markdown format to be used by the Hugo generator
for the blog. There are many resources available on how to use
this technology stack.
We recognize that this requirement makes the process more difficult for less-familiar folks to
submit, and we're constantly looking at solutions to lower this bar. If you have ideas on how to
lower the barrier, please volunteer to help out.
Ensure that your blog post follows the correct naming conventions and the following frontmatter
The Markdown file name must follow the format YYYY-MM-DD-Your-Title-Here.md. For example,
Do not include dots in the filename. A name like 2020-01-01-whats-new-in-1.19.md causes
failures during a build.
The front matter must include the following:
---layout:blogtitle:"Your Title Here"date:YYYY-MM-DDslug:text-for-URL-link-here-no-spaces---
The first or initial commit message should be a short summary of the work being done and
should stand alone as a description of the blog post. Please note that subsequent edits to
your blog will be squashed into this main commit, so it should be as useful as possible.
Examples of a good commit message:
Add blog post on the foo kubernetes feature
blog: foobar announcement
Examples of bad commit message:
Add blog post
The blog team will then review your PR and give you comments on things you might need to fix.
After that the bot will merge your PR and your blog post will be published.
If the content of the blog post contains only content that is not expected to require updates
to stay accurate for the reader, it can be marked as evergreen and exempted from the automatic
warning about outdated content added to blog posts older than one year.
To mark a blog post as evergreen, add this to the front matter:
Examples of content that should not be marked evergreen:
Tutorials that only apply to specific releases or versions and not all future versions
References to pre-GA APIs or features
Submit a case study
Case studies highlight how organizations are using Kubernetes to solve real-world problems. The
Kubernetes marketing team and members of the CNCF
collaborate with you on all case studies.