Validating Admission Policy
Kubernetes v1.26 [alpha]
This page provides an overview of Validating Admission Policy.
What is Validating Admission Policy?
Validating admission policies offer a declarative, in-process alternative to validating admission webhooks.
Validating admission policies use the Common Expression Language (CEL) to declare the validation rules of a policy. Validation admission policies are highly configurable, enabling policy authors to define policies that can be parameterized and scoped to resources as needed by cluster administrators.
What Resources Make a Policy
A policy is generally made up of three resources:
ValidatingAdmissionPolicydescribes the abstract logic of a policy (think: "this policy makes sure a particular label is set to a particular value").
ValidatingAdmissionPolicyBindinglinks the above resources together and provides scoping. If you only want to require an
ownerlabel to be set for
Pods, the binding is where you would specify this restriction.
A parameter resource provides information to a ValidatingAdmissionPolicy to make it a concrete statement (think "the
ownerlabel must be set to something that ends in
.company.com"). A native type such as ConfigMap or a CRD defines the schema of a parameter resource.
ValidatingAdmissionPolicyobjects specify what Kind they are expecting for their parameter resource.
At least a
ValidatingAdmissionPolicy and a corresponding
must be defined for a policy to have an effect.
ValidatingAdmissionPolicy does not need to be configured via parameters, simply leave
Before you begin
- Ensure the
ValidatingAdmissionPolicyfeature gate is enabled.
- Ensure that the
admissionregistration.k8s.io/v1alpha1API is enabled.
Getting Started with Validating Admission Policy
Validating Admission Policy is part of the cluster control-plane. You should write and deploy them with great caution. The following describes how to quickly experiment with Validating Admission Policy.
Creating a ValidatingAdmissionPolicy
The following is an example of a ValidatingAdmissionPolicy.
apiVersion: admissionregistration.k8s.io/v1alpha1 kind: ValidatingAdmissionPolicy metadata: name: "demo-policy.example.com" spec: failurePolicy: Fail matchConstraints: resourceRules: - apiGroups: ["apps"] apiVersions: ["v1"] operations: ["CREATE", "UPDATE"] resources: ["deployments"] validations: - expression: "object.spec.replicas <= 5"
spec.validations contains CEL expressions which use the Common Expression Language (CEL)
to validate the request. If an expression evaluates to false, the validation check is enforced
according to the
To configure a validating admission policy for use in a cluster, a binding is required. The following is an example of a ValidatingAdmissionPolicyBinding.:
apiVersion: admissionregistration.k8s.io/v1alpha1 kind: ValidatingAdmissionPolicyBinding metadata: name: "demo-binding-test.example.com" spec: policyName: "demo-policy.example.com" matchResources: namespaceSelector: matchLabels: environment: test
When trying to create a deployment with replicas set not satisfying the validation expression, an error will return containing message:
ValidatingAdmissionPolicy 'demo-policy.example.com' with binding 'demo-binding-test.example.com' denied request: failed expression: object.spec.replicas <= 5
The above provides a simple example of using ValidatingAdmissionPolicy without a parameter configured.
Parameter resources allow a policy configuration to be separate from its definition. A policy can define paramKind, which outlines GVK of the parameter resource, and then a policy binding ties a policy by name (via policyName) to a particular parameter resource via paramRef.
If parameter configuration is needed, the following is an example of a ValidatingAdmissionPolicy with parameter configuration.
apiVersion: admissionregistration.k8s.io/v1alpha1 kind: ValidatingAdmissionPolicy metadata: name: "replicalimit-policy.example.com" spec: failurePolicy: Fail paramKind: apiVersion: rules.example.com/v1 kind: ReplicaLimit matchConstraints: resourceRules: - apiGroups: ["apps"] apiVersions: ["v1"] operations: ["CREATE", "UPDATE"] resources: ["deployments"] validations: - expression: "object.spec.replicas <= params.maxReplicas" reason: Invalid
spec.paramKind field of the ValidatingAdmissionPolicy specifies the kind of resources used
to parameterize this policy. For this example, it is configured by ReplicaLimit custom resources.
Note in this example how the CEL expression references the parameters via the CEL params variable,
spec.matchConstraints specifies what resources this policy is
designed to validate. Note that the native types such like
ConfigMap could also be used as
spec.validations fields contain CEL expressions. If an expression evaluates to false, the
validation check is enforced according to the
The validating admission policy author is responsible for providing the ReplicaLimit parameter CRD.
To configure an validating admission policy for use in a cluster, a binding and parameter resource are created. The following is an example of a ValidatingAdmissionPolicyBinding.
apiVersion: admissionregistration.k8s.io/v1alpha1 kind: ValidatingAdmissionPolicyBinding metadata: name: "replicalimit-binding-test.example.com" spec: policyName: "replicalimit-policy.example.com" paramRef: name: "replica-limit-test.example.com" matchResources: namespaceSelector: matchLabels: environment: test
The parameter resource could be as following:
apiVersion: rules.example.com/v1 kind: ReplicaLimit metadata: name: "replica-limit-test.example.com" maxReplicas: 3
This policy parameter resource limits deployments to a max of 3 replicas in all namespaces in the test environment. An admission policy may have multiple bindings. To bind all other environments environment to have a maxReplicas limit of 100, create another ValidatingAdmissionPolicyBinding:
apiVersion: admissionregistration.k8s.io/v1alpha1 kind: ValidatingAdmissionPolicyBinding metadata: name: "replicalimit-binding-nontest" spec: policyName: "replicalimit-policy.example.com" paramRef: name: "replica-limit-clusterwide.example.com" matchResources: namespaceSelector: matchExpressions: - key: environment operator: NotIn values: - test
And have a parameter resource like:
apiVersion: rules.example.com/v1 kind: ReplicaLimit metadata: name: "replica-limit-clusterwide.example.com" maxReplicas: 100
Bindings can have overlapping match criteria. The policy is evaluated for each matching binding. In the above example, the "nontest" policy binding could instead have been defined as a global policy:
apiVersion: admissionregistration.k8s.io/v1alpha1 kind: ValidatingAdmissionPolicyBinding metadata: name: "replicalimit-binding-global" spec: policyName: "replicalimit-policy.example.com" params: "replica-limit-clusterwide.example.com" matchResources: namespaceSelector: matchExpressions: - key: environment operator: Exists
The params object representing a parameter resource will not be set if a parameter resource has not been bound, so for policies requiring a parameter resource, it can be useful to add a check to ensure one has been bound.
For the use cases require parameter configuration, we recommend to add a param check in
- expression: "params != null" message: "params missing but required to bind to this policy"
It can be convenient to be able to have optional parameters as part of a parameter resource, and
only validate them if present. CEL provides
has(), which checks if the key passed to it exists.
CEL also implements Boolean short-circuiting. If the first half of a logical OR evaluates to true,
it won’t evaluate the other half (since the result of the entire OR will be true regardless).
Combining the two, we can provide a way to validate optional parameters:
!has(params.optionalNumber) || (params.optionalNumber >= 5 && params.optionalNumber <= 10)
Here, we first check that the optional parameter is present with
optionalNumberhasn’t been defined, then the expression short-circuits since
!has(params.optionalNumber)will evaluate to true.
optionalNumberhas been defined, then the latter half of the CEL expression will be evaluated, and optionalNumber will be checked to ensure that it contains a value between 5 and 10 inclusive.
We introduced the authorization check for parameter resources.
User is expected to have
read access to the resources referenced by
Note that if a resource in
paramKind fails resolving via the restmapper,
read access to all
resources of groups is required.
failurePolicy defines how mis-configurations and CEL expressions evaluating to error from the
admission policy are handled. Allowed values are
Ignoremeans that an error calling the ValidatingAdmissionPolicy is ignored and the API request is allowed to continue.
Failmeans that an error calling the ValidatingAdmissionPolicy causes the admission to fail and the API request to be rejected.
Note that the
failurePolicy is defined inside
apiVersion: admissionregistration.k8s.io/v1alpha1 kind: ValidatingAdmissionPolicy spec: ... failurePolicy: Ignore # The default is "Fail" validations: - expression: "object.spec.xyz == params.x"
spec.validations[i].expression represents the expression which will be evaluated by CEL.
To learn more, see the CEL language specification
CEL expressions have access to the contents of the Admission request/response, organized into CEL
variables as well as some other useful variables:
- 'object' - The object from the incoming request. The value is null for DELETE requests.
- 'oldObject' - The existing object. The value is null for CREATE requests.
- 'request' - Attributes of the admission request.
- 'params' - Parameter resource referred to by the policy binding being evaluated. The value is
metadata.generateName are always accessible from
the root of the object. No other metadata properties are accessible.
Only property names of the form
[a-zA-Z_.-/][a-zA-Z0-9_.-/]* are accessible.
Accessible property names are escaped according to the following rules when accessed in the
|escape sequence||property name equivalent|
|CEL RESERVED keyword|
intin the word “sprint” would not be escaped.
Examples on escaping:
|property name||rule with escaped property name|
Equality on arrays with list type of 'set' or 'map' ignores element order, i.e. [1, 2] == [2, 1].
Concatenation on arrays with x-kubernetes-list-type use the semantics of the list type:
X + Y performs a union where the array positions of all elements in
X are preserved and
non-intersecting elements in
Y are appended, retaining their partial order.
X + Y performs a merge where the array positions of all keys in
X are preserved but the values
are overwritten by values in
Y when the key sets of
Y intersect. Elements in
non-intersecting keys are appended, retaining their partial order.
Validation expression examples
|Validate that the three fields defining replicas are ordered appropriately|
|Validate that an entry with the 'Available' key exists in a map|
|Validate that one of two lists is non-empty, but not both|
|Validate the value of a map for a specific key, if it is in the map|
|Validate the 'value' field of a listMap entry where key field 'name' is 'MY_ENV'|
|Validate that 'expired' date is after a 'create' date plus a 'ttl' duration|
|Validate a 'health' string field has the prefix 'ok'|
|Validate that the 'foo' property of a listMap item with a key 'x' is less than 10|
|Validate an int-or-string field for both the int and string cases|
|Validate that an object's name has the prefix of another field value|
|Validate that two listSets are disjoint|
|Validate the 'details' map is keyed by the items in the 'names' listSet|
|Validate that the 'primary' property has one and only one occurrence in the 'clusters' listMap|
Read Supported evaluation on CEL for more information about CEL rules.
spec.validation[i].reason represents a machine-readable description of why this validation failed.
If this is the first validation in the list to fail, this reason, as well as the corresponding
HTTP response code, are used in the HTTP response to the client.
The currently supported reasons are:
If not set,
StatusReasonInvalid is used in the response to the client.