Setup

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CRI installation

Since v1.6.0, Kubernetes has enabled the use of CRI, Container Runtime Interface, by default. This page contains installation instruction for various runtimes.

Please proceed with executing the following commands based on your OS as root. You may become the root user by executing sudo -i after SSH-ing to each host.

Caution:

A flaw was found in the way runc handled system file descriptors when running containers. A malicious container could use this flaw to overwrite contents of the runc binary and consequently run arbitrary commands on the container host system.

Please refer to this link for more information about this issue cve-2019-5736 : runc vulnerability

Cgroup drivers

When systemd is chosen as the init system for a Linux distribution, the init process generates and consumes a root cgroup and acts as a cgroup manager. Systemd has a tight integration with cgroups and will allocate cgroups per process. It’s possible to configure your container runtime and the kubelet to use cgroupfs. This means that there will then be two different cgroup managers.

Cgroups are used to constrain resources that are allocated to processes. A single cgroup manager will simplify the view of what resources are being allocated and will by default have a more consistent view of the available and in-use resources. When we have two managers we end up with two views of those resources. We have seen cases in the field where nodes that are configured to use cgroupfs for the kubelet and Docker, and systemd for the rest of the processes running on the node becomes unstable under resource pressure.

Changing the settings such that your container runtime and kubelet use systemd as the cgroup driver stabilized the system. Please note the native.cgroupdriver=systemd option in the Docker setup below.

Docker

On each of your machines, install Docker. Version 18.06.2 is recommended, but 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 17.03 and 18.09 are known to work as well. Keep track of the latest verified Docker version in the Kubernetes release notes.

Use the following commands to install Docker on your system:


# Install Docker CE
## Set up the repository:
### Update the apt package index
    apt-get update

### Install packages to allow apt to use a repository over HTTPS
    apt-get update && apt-get install apt-transport-https ca-certificates curl software-properties-common

### Add Docker’s official GPG key
    curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | apt-key add -

### Add docker apt repository.
    add-apt-repository \
    "deb [arch=amd64] https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu \
    $(lsb_release -cs) \
    stable"

## Install docker ce.
apt-get update && apt-get install docker-ce=18.06.2~ce~3-0~ubuntu

# Setup daemon.
cat > /etc/docker/daemon.json <<EOF
{
  "exec-opts": ["native.cgroupdriver=systemd"],
  "log-driver": "json-file",
  "log-opts": {
    "max-size": "100m"
  },
  "storage-driver": "overlay2"
}
EOF

mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/docker.service.d

# Restart docker.
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart docker



# Install Docker CE
## Set up the repository
### Install required packages.
    yum install yum-utils device-mapper-persistent-data lvm2

### Add docker repository.
yum-config-manager \
    --add-repo \
    https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo

## Install docker ce.
yum update && yum install docker-ce-18.06.2.ce

## Create /etc/docker directory.
mkdir /etc/docker

# Setup daemon.
cat > /etc/docker/daemon.json <<EOF
{
  "exec-opts": ["native.cgroupdriver=systemd"],
  "log-driver": "json-file",
  "log-opts": {
    "max-size": "100m"
  },
  "storage-driver": "overlay2",
  "storage-opts": [
    "overlay2.override_kernel_check=true"
  ]
}
EOF

mkdir -p /etc/systemd/system/docker.service.d

# Restart docker.
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart docker

Refer to the official Docker installation guides for more information.

CRI-O

This section contains the necessary steps to install CRI-O as CRI runtime.

Use the following commands to install CRI-O on your system:

Prerequisites

modprobe overlay
modprobe br_netfilter

# Setup required sysctl params, these persist across reboots.
cat > /etc/sysctl.d/99-kubernetes-cri.conf <<EOF
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables  = 1
net.ipv4.ip_forward                 = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
EOF

sysctl --system


# Install prerequisites
apt-get update
apt-get install software-properties-common

add-apt-repository ppa:projectatomic/ppa
apt-get update

# Install CRI-O
apt-get install cri-o-1.11



# Install prerequisites
yum-config-manager --add-repo=https://cbs.centos.org/repos/paas7-crio-311-candidate/x86_64/os/

# Install CRI-O
yum install --nogpgcheck cri-o

Start CRI-O

systemctl start crio

Refer to the CRI-O installation guide for more information.

Containerd

This section contains the necessary steps to use containerd as CRI runtime.

Use the following commands to install Containerd on your system:

Prerequisites

modprobe overlay
modprobe br_netfilter

# Setup required sysctl params, these persist across reboots.
cat > /etc/sysctl.d/99-kubernetes-cri.conf <<EOF
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables  = 1
net.ipv4.ip_forward                 = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
EOF

sysctl --system

apt-get install -y libseccomp2


yum install -y libseccomp

Install containerd

Containerd releases are published regularly, the values below are hardcoded to the latest version available at the time of writing. Please check for newer versions and hashes here.

# Export required environment variables.
export CONTAINERD_VERSION="1.1.2"
export CONTAINERD_SHA256="d4ed54891e90a5d1a45e3e96464e2e8a4770cd380c21285ef5c9895c40549218"

# Download containerd tar.
wget https://storage.googleapis.com/cri-containerd-release/cri-containerd-${CONTAINERD_VERSION}.linux-amd64.tar.gz

# Check hash.
echo "${CONTAINERD_SHA256} cri-containerd-${CONTAINERD_VERSION}.linux-amd64.tar.gz" | sha256sum --check -

# Unpack.
tar --no-overwrite-dir -C / -xzf cri-containerd-${CONTAINERD_VERSION}.linux-amd64.tar.gz

# Start containerd.
systemctl start containerd

Other CRI runtimes: frakti

Refer to the Frakti QuickStart guide for more information.

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