1 - Intro to Windows support in Kubernetes

Windows applications constitute a large portion of the services and applications that run in many organizations. Windows containers provide a modern way to encapsulate processes and package dependencies, making it easier to use DevOps practices and follow cloud native patterns for Windows applications. Kubernetes has become the defacto standard container orchestrator, and the release of Kubernetes 1.14 includes production support for scheduling Windows containers on Windows nodes in a Kubernetes cluster, enabling a vast ecosystem of Windows applications to leverage the power of Kubernetes. Organizations with investments in Windows-based applications and Linux-based applications don't have to look for separate orchestrators to manage their workloads, leading to increased operational efficiencies across their deployments, regardless of operating system.

Windows containers in Kubernetes

To enable the orchestration of Windows containers in Kubernetes, include Windows nodes in your existing Linux cluster. Scheduling Windows containers in Pods on Kubernetes is similar to scheduling Linux-based containers.

In order to run Windows containers, your Kubernetes cluster must include multiple operating systems, with control plane nodes running Linux and workers running either Windows or Linux depending on your workload needs. Windows Server 2019 is the only Windows operating system supported, enabling Kubernetes Node on Windows (including kubelet, container runtime, and kube-proxy). For a detailed explanation of Windows distribution channels see the Microsoft documentation.

Note: The Kubernetes control plane, including the master components, continues to run on Linux. There are no plans to have a Windows-only Kubernetes cluster.
Note: In this document, when we talk about Windows containers we mean Windows containers with process isolation. Windows containers with Hyper-V isolation is planned for a future release.

Supported Functionality and Limitations

Supported Functionality

Windows OS Version Support

Refer to the following table for Windows operating system support in Kubernetes. A single heterogeneous Kubernetes cluster can have both Windows and Linux worker nodes. Windows containers have to be scheduled on Windows nodes and Linux containers on Linux nodes.

Kubernetes versionWindows Server LTSC releasesWindows Server SAC releases
Kubernetes v1.17Windows Server 2019Windows Server ver 1809
Kubernetes v1.18Windows Server 2019Windows Server ver 1809, Windows Server ver 1903, Windows Server ver 1909
Kubernetes v1.19Windows Server 2019Windows Server ver 1909, Windows Server ver 2004
Kubernetes v1.20Windows Server 2019Windows Server ver 1909, Windows Server ver 2004

Note: Information on the different Windows Server servicing channels including their support models can be found at Windows Server servicing channels.
Note: We don't expect all Windows customers to update the operating system for their apps frequently. Upgrading your applications is what dictates and necessitates upgrading or introducing new nodes to the cluster. For the customers that chose to upgrade their operating system for containers running on Kubernetes, we will offer guidance and step-by-step instructions when we add support for a new operating system version. This guidance will include recommended upgrade procedures for upgrading user applications together with cluster nodes. Windows nodes adhere to Kubernetes version-skew policy (node to control plane versioning) the same way as Linux nodes do today.
Note: The Windows Server Host Operating System is subject to the Windows Server licensing. The Windows Container images are subject to the Supplemental License Terms for Windows containers.
Note: Windows containers with process isolation have strict compatibility rules, where the host OS version must match the container base image OS version. Once we support Windows containers with Hyper-V isolation in Kubernetes, the limitation and compatibility rules will change.

Pause Image

Microsoft maintains a Windows pause infrastructure container at mcr.microsoft.com/oss/kubernetes/pause:1.4.1.


From an API and kubectl perspective, Windows containers behave in much the same way as Linux-based containers. However, there are some notable differences in key functionality which are outlined in the limitation section.

Key Kubernetes elements work the same way in Windows as they do in Linux. In this section, we talk about some of the key workload enablers and how they map to Windows.

  • Pods

    A Pod is the basic building block of Kubernetes–the smallest and simplest unit in the Kubernetes object model that you create or deploy. You may not deploy Windows and Linux containers in the same Pod. All containers in a Pod are scheduled onto a single Node where each Node represents a specific platform and architecture. The following Pod capabilities, properties and events are supported with Windows containers:

    • Single or multiple containers per Pod with process isolation and volume sharing
    • Pod status fields
    • Readiness and Liveness probes
    • postStart & preStop container lifecycle events
    • ConfigMap, Secrets: as environment variables or volumes
    • EmptyDir
    • Named pipe host mounts
    • Resource limits
  • Controllers

    Kubernetes controllers handle the desired state of Pods. The following workload controllers are supported with Windows containers:

    • ReplicaSet
    • ReplicationController
    • Deployments
    • StatefulSets
    • DaemonSet
    • Job
    • CronJob
  • Services

    A Kubernetes Service is an abstraction which defines a logical set of Pods and a policy by which to access them - sometimes called a micro-service. You can use services for cross-operating system connectivity. In Windows, services can utilize the following types, properties and capabilities:

    • Service Environment variables
    • NodePort
    • ClusterIP
    • LoadBalancer
    • ExternalName
    • Headless services

Pods, Controllers and Services are critical elements to managing Windows workloads on Kubernetes. However, on their own they are not enough to enable the proper lifecycle management of Windows workloads in a dynamic cloud native environment. We added support for the following features:

  • Pod and container metrics
  • Horizontal Pod Autoscaler support
  • kubectl Exec
  • Resource Quotas
  • Scheduler preemption

Container Runtime

Docker EE
FEATURE STATE: Kubernetes v1.14 [stable]

Docker EE-basic 19.03+ is the recommended container runtime for all Windows Server versions. This works with the dockershim code included in the kubelet.

FEATURE STATE: Kubernetes v1.20 [stable]

ContainerD 1.4.0+ can also be used as the container runtime for Windows Kubernetes nodes.

Learn how to install ContainerD on a Windows.

Caution: There is a known limitation when using GMSA with ContainerD to access Windows network shares which requires a kernel patch. Updates to address this limitation are currently available for Windows Server, Version 2004 and will be available for Windows Server 2019 in early 2021. Check for updates on the Microsoft Windows Containers issue tracker.

Persistent Storage

Kubernetes volumes enable complex applications, with data persistence and Pod volume sharing requirements, to be deployed on Kubernetes. Management of persistent volumes associated with a specific storage back-end or protocol includes actions such as: provisioning/de-provisioning/resizing of volumes, attaching/detaching a volume to/from a Kubernetes node and mounting/dismounting a volume to/from individual containers in a pod that needs to persist data. The code implementing these volume management actions for a specific storage back-end or protocol is shipped in the form of a Kubernetes volume plugin. The following broad classes of Kubernetes volume plugins are supported on Windows:

In-tree Volume Plugins

Code associated with in-tree volume plugins ship as part of the core Kubernetes code base. Deployment of in-tree volume plugins do not require installation of additional scripts or deployment of separate containerized plugin components. These plugins can handle: provisioning/de-provisioning and resizing of volumes in the storage backend, attaching/detaching of volumes to/from a Kubernetes node and mounting/dismounting a volume to/from individual containers in a pod. The following in-tree plugins support Windows nodes:

FlexVolume Plugins

Code associated with FlexVolume plugins ship as out-of-tree scripts or binaries that need to be deployed directly on the host. FlexVolume plugins handle attaching/detaching of volumes to/from a Kubernetes node and mounting/dismounting a volume to/from individual containers in a pod. Provisioning/De-provisioning of persistent volumes associated with FlexVolume plugins may be handled through an external provisioner that is typically separate from the FlexVolume plugins. The following FlexVolume plugins, deployed as powershell scripts on the host, support Windows nodes:

CSI Plugins
FEATURE STATE: Kubernetes v1.19 [beta]

Code associated with CSI plugins ship as out-of-tree scripts and binaries that are typically distributed as container images and deployed using standard Kubernetes constructs like DaemonSets and StatefulSets. CSI plugins handle a wide range of volume management actions in Kubernetes: provisioning/de-provisioning/resizing of volumes, attaching/detaching of volumes to/from a Kubernetes node and mounting/dismounting a volume to/from individual containers in a pod, backup/restore of persistent data using snapshots and cloning. CSI plugins typically consist of node plugins (that run on each node as a DaemonSet) and controller plugins.

CSI node plugins (especially those associated with persistent volumes exposed as either block devices or over a shared file-system) need to perform various privileged operations like scanning of disk devices, mounting of file systems, etc. These operations differ for each host operating system. For Linux worker nodes, containerized CSI node plugins are typically deployed as privileged containers. For Windows worker nodes, privileged operations for containerized CSI node plugins is supported using csi-proxy, a community-managed, stand-alone binary that needs to be pre-installed on each Windows node. Please refer to the deployment guide of the CSI plugin you wish to deploy for further details.


Networking for Windows containers is exposed through CNI plugins. Windows containers function similarly to virtual machines in regards to networking. Each container has a virtual network adapter (vNIC) which is connected to a Hyper-V virtual switch (vSwitch). The Host Networking Service (HNS) and the Host Compute Service (HCS) work together to create containers and attach container vNICs to networks. HCS is responsible for the management of containers whereas HNS is responsible for the management of networking resources such as:

  • Virtual networks (including creation of vSwitches)
  • Endpoints / vNICs
  • Namespaces
  • Policies (Packet encapsulations, Load-balancing rules, ACLs, NAT'ing rules, etc.)

The following service spec types are supported:

  • NodePort
  • ClusterIP
  • LoadBalancer
  • ExternalName
Network modes

Windows supports five different networking drivers/modes: L2bridge, L2tunnel, Overlay, Transparent, and NAT. In a heterogeneous cluster with Windows and Linux worker nodes, you need to select a networking solution that is compatible on both Windows and Linux. The following out-of-tree plugins are supported on Windows, with recommendations on when to use each CNI:

Network DriverDescriptionContainer Packet ModificationsNetwork PluginsNetwork Plugin Characteristics
L2bridgeContainers are attached to an external vSwitch. Containers are attached to the underlay network, although the physical network doesn't need to learn the container MACs because they are rewritten on ingress/egress.MAC is rewritten to host MAC, IP may be rewritten to host IP using HNS OutboundNAT policy.win-bridge, Azure-CNI, Flannel host-gateway uses win-bridgewin-bridge uses L2bridge network mode, connects containers to the underlay of hosts, offering best performance. Requires user-defined routes (UDR) for inter-node connectivity.
L2TunnelThis is a special case of l2bridge, but only used on Azure. All packets are sent to the virtualization host where SDN policy is applied.MAC rewritten, IP visible on the underlay networkAzure-CNIAzure-CNI allows integration of containers with Azure vNET, and allows them to leverage the set of capabilities that Azure Virtual Network provides. For example, securely connect to Azure services or use Azure NSGs. See azure-cni for some examples
Overlay (Overlay networking for Windows in Kubernetes is in alpha stage)Containers are given a vNIC connected to an external vSwitch. Each overlay network gets its own IP subnet, defined by a custom IP prefix.The overlay network driver uses VXLAN encapsulation.Encapsulated with an outer header.Win-overlay, Flannel VXLAN (uses win-overlay)win-overlay should be used when virtual container networks are desired to be isolated from underlay of hosts (e.g. for security reasons). Allows for IPs to be re-used for different overlay networks (which have different VNID tags) if you are restricted on IPs in your datacenter. This option requires KB4489899 on Windows Server 2019.
Transparent (special use case for ovn-kubernetes)Requires an external vSwitch. Containers are attached to an external vSwitch which enables intra-pod communication via logical networks (logical switches and routers).Packet is encapsulated either via GENEVE or STT tunneling to reach pods which are not on the same host.
Packets are forwarded or dropped via the tunnel metadata information supplied by the ovn network controller.
NAT is done for north-south communication.
ovn-kubernetesDeploy via ansible. Distributed ACLs can be applied via Kubernetes policies. IPAM support. Load-balancing can be achieved without kube-proxy. NATing is done without using iptables/netsh.
NAT (not used in Kubernetes)Containers are given a vNIC connected to an internal vSwitch. DNS/DHCP is provided using an internal component called WinNATMAC and IP is rewritten to host MAC/IP.natIncluded here for completeness

As outlined above, the Flannel CNI meta plugin is also supported on Windows via the VXLAN network backend (alpha support ; delegates to win-overlay) and host-gateway network backend (stable support; delegates to win-bridge). This plugin supports delegating to one of the reference CNI plugins (win-overlay, win-bridge), to work in conjunction with Flannel daemon on Windows (Flanneld) for automatic node subnet lease assignment and HNS network creation. This plugin reads in its own configuration file (cni.conf), and aggregates it with the environment variables from the FlannelD generated subnet.env file. It then delegates to one of the reference CNI plugins for network plumbing, and sends the correct configuration containing the node-assigned subnet to the IPAM plugin (e.g. host-local).

For the node, pod, and service objects, the following network flows are supported for TCP/UDP traffic:

  • Pod -> Pod (IP)
  • Pod -> Pod (Name)
  • Pod -> Service (Cluster IP)
  • Pod -> Service (PQDN, but only if there are no ".")
  • Pod -> Service (FQDN)
  • Pod -> External (IP)
  • Pod -> External (DNS)
  • Node -> Pod
  • Pod -> Node
IP address management (IPAM)

The following IPAM options are supported on Windows:

Load balancing and Services

On Windows, you can use the following settings to configure Services and load balancing behavior:

Windows Service Settings
FeatureDescriptionSupported Kubernetes versionSupported Windows OS buildHow to enable
Session affinityEnsures that connections from a particular client are passed to the same Pod each time.v1.19+Windows Server vNext Insider Preview Build 19551 (or higher)Set service.spec.sessionAffinity to "ClientIP"
Direct Server ReturnLoad balancing mode where the IP address fixups and the LBNAT occurs at the container vSwitch port directly; service traffic arrives with the source IP set as the originating pod IP. Promises lower latency and scalability.v1.15+Windows Server, version 2004Set the following flags in kube-proxy: --feature-gates="WinDSR=true" --enable-dsr=true
Preserve-DestinationSkips DNAT of service traffic, thereby preserving the virtual IP of the target service in packets reaching the backend Pod. This setting will also ensure that the client IP of incoming packets get preserved.v1.15+Windows Server, version 1903 (or higher)Set "preserve-destination": "true" in service annotations and enable DSR flags in kube-proxy.
IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack networkingNative IPv4-to-IPv4 in parallel with IPv6-to-IPv6 communications to, from, and within a clusterv1.19+Windows Server vNext Insider Preview Build 19603 (or higher)See IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack

IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack

You can enable IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack networking for l2bridge networks using the IPv6DualStack feature gate. See enable IPv4/IPv6 dual stack for more details.

Note: On Windows, using IPv6 with Kubernetes require Windows Server, version 2004 (kernel version 10.0.19041.610) or later.
Note: Overlay (VXLAN) networks on Windows do not support dual-stack networking today.


Windows is only supported as a worker node in the Kubernetes architecture and component matrix. This means that a Kubernetes cluster must always include Linux master nodes, zero or more Linux worker nodes, and zero or more Windows worker nodes.

Resource Handling

Linux cgroups are used as a pod boundary for resource controls in Linux. Containers are created within that boundary for network, process and file system isolation. The cgroups APIs can be used to gather cpu/io/memory stats. In contrast, Windows uses a Job object per container with a system namespace filter to contain all processes in a container and provide logical isolation from the host. There is no way to run a Windows container without the namespace filtering in place. This means that system privileges cannot be asserted in the context of the host, and thus privileged containers are not available on Windows. Containers cannot assume an identity from the host because the Security Account Manager (SAM) is separate.

Resource Reservations

Memory Reservations

Windows does not have an out-of-memory process killer as Linux does. Windows always treats all user-mode memory allocations as virtual, and pagefiles are mandatory. The net effect is that Windows won't reach out of memory conditions the same way Linux does, and processes page to disk instead of being subject to out of memory (OOM) termination. If memory is over-provisioned and all physical memory is exhausted, then paging can slow down performance.

Keeping memory usage within reasonable bounds is possible using the kubelet parameters --kubelet-reserve and/or --system-reserve to account for memory usage on the node (outside of containers). This reduces NodeAllocatable.

Note: As you deploy workloads, use resource limits (must set only limits or limits must equal requests) on containers. This also subtracts from NodeAllocatable and prevents the scheduler from adding more pods once a node is full.

A best practice to avoid over-provisioning is to configure the kubelet with a system reserved memory of at least 2GB to account for Windows, Docker, and Kubernetes processes.

CPU Reservations

To account for Windows, Docker and other Kubernetes host processes it is recommended to reserve a percentage of CPU so they are able to respond to events. This value needs to be scaled based on the number of CPU cores available on the Windows node.To determine this percentage a user should identify the maximum pod density for each of their nodes and monitor the CPU usage of the system services choosing a value that meets their workload needs.

Keeping CPU usage within reasonable bounds is possible using the kubelet parameters --kubelet-reserve and/or --system-reserve to account for CPU usage on the node (outside of containers). This reduces NodeAllocatable.

Feature Restrictions

  • TerminationGracePeriod: not implemented
  • Single file mapping: to be implemented with CRI-ContainerD
  • Termination message: to be implemented with CRI-ContainerD
  • Privileged Containers: not currently supported in Windows containers
  • HugePages: not currently supported in Windows containers
  • The existing node problem detector is Linux-only and requires privileged containers. In general, we don't expect this to be used on Windows because privileged containers are not supported
  • Not all features of shared namespaces are supported (see API section for more details)

Difference in behavior of flags when compared to Linux

The behavior of the following kubelet flags is different on Windows nodes as described below:

  • --kubelet-reserve, --system-reserve , and --eviction-hard flags update Node Allocatable
  • Eviction by using --enforce-node-allocable is not implemented
  • Eviction by using --eviction-hard and --eviction-soft are not implemented
  • MemoryPressure Condition is not implemented
  • There are no OOM eviction actions taken by the kubelet
  • Kubelet running on the windows node does not have memory restrictions. --kubelet-reserve and --system-reserve do not set limits on kubelet or processes running on the host. This means kubelet or a process on the host could cause memory resource starvation outside the node-allocatable and scheduler
  • An additional flag to set the priority of the kubelet process is available on the Windows nodes called --windows-priorityclass. This flag allows kubelet process to get more CPU time slices when compared to other processes running on the Windows host. More information on the allowable values and their meaning is available at Windows Priority Classes. In order for kubelet to always have enough CPU cycles it is recommended to set this flag to ABOVE_NORMAL_PRIORITY_CLASS and above


Windows has a layered filesystem driver to mount container layers and create a copy filesystem based on NTFS. All file paths in the container are resolved only within the context of that container.

  • With Docker Volume mounts can only target a directory in the container, and not an individual file. This limitation does not exist with CRI-containerD.
  • Volume mounts cannot project files or directories back to the host filesystem
  • Read-only filesystems are not supported because write access is always required for the Windows registry and SAM database. However, read-only volumes are supported
  • Volume user-masks and permissions are not available. Because the SAM is not shared between the host & container, there's no mapping between them. All permissions are resolved within the context of the container

As a result, the following storage functionality is not supported on Windows nodes

  • Volume subpath mounts. Only the entire volume can be mounted in a Windows container.
  • Subpath volume mounting for Secrets
  • Host mount projection
  • DefaultMode (due to UID/GID dependency)
  • Read-only root filesystem. Mapped volumes still support readOnly
  • Block device mapping
  • Memory as the storage medium
  • File system features like uui/guid, per-user Linux filesystem permissions
  • NFS based storage/volume support
  • Expanding the mounted volume (resizefs)


Windows Container Networking differs in some important ways from Linux networking. The Microsoft documentation for Windows Container Networking contains additional details and background.

The Windows host networking service and virtual switch implement namespacing and can create virtual NICs as needed for a pod or container. However, many configurations such as DNS, routes, and metrics are stored in the Windows registry database rather than /etc/... files as they are on Linux. The Windows registry for the container is separate from that of the host, so concepts like mapping /etc/resolv.conf from the host into a container don't have the same effect they would on Linux. These must be configured using Windows APIs run in the context of that container. Therefore CNI implementations need to call the HNS instead of relying on file mappings to pass network details into the pod or container.

The following networking functionality is not supported on Windows nodes

  • Host networking mode is not available for Windows pods
  • Local NodePort access from the node itself fails (works for other nodes or external clients)
  • Accessing service VIPs from nodes will be available with a future release of Windows Server
  • A single service can only support up to 64 backend pods / unique destination IPs
  • Overlay networking support in kube-proxy is an alpha release. In addition, it requires KB4482887 to be installed on Windows Server 2019
  • Local Traffic Policy and DSR mode
  • Windows containers connected to l2bridge, l2tunnel, or overlay networks do not support communicating over the IPv6 stack. There is outstanding Windows platform work required to enable these network drivers to consume IPv6 addresses and subsequent Kubernetes work in kubelet, kube-proxy, and CNI plugins.
  • Outbound communication using the ICMP protocol via the win-overlay, win-bridge, and Azure-CNI plugin. Specifically, the Windows data plane (VFP) doesn't support ICMP packet transpositions. This means:
    • ICMP packets directed to destinations within the same network (e.g. pod to pod communication via ping) work as expected and without any limitations
    • TCP/UDP packets work as expected and without any limitations
    • ICMP packets directed to pass through a remote network (e.g. pod to external internet communication via ping) cannot be transposed and thus will not be routed back to their source
    • Since TCP/UDP packets can still be transposed, one can substitute ping <destination> with curl <destination> to be able to debug connectivity to the outside world.

These features were added in Kubernetes v1.15:

  • kubectl port-forward
CNI Plugins
  • Windows reference network plugins win-bridge and win-overlay do not currently implement CNI spec v0.4.0 due to missing "CHECK" implementation.
  • The Flannel VXLAN CNI has the following limitations on Windows:
  1. Node-pod connectivity isn't possible by design. It's only possible for local pods with Flannel v0.12.0 (or higher).
  2. We are restricted to using VNI 4096 and UDP port 4789. The VNI limitation is being worked on and will be overcome in a future release (open-source flannel changes). See the official Flannel VXLAN backend docs for more details on these parameters.
  • ClusterFirstWithHostNet is not supported for DNS. Windows treats all names with a '.' as a FQDN and skips PQDN resolution
  • On Linux, you have a DNS suffix list, which is used when trying to resolve PQDNs. On Windows, we only have 1 DNS suffix, which is the DNS suffix associated with that pod's namespace (mydns.svc.cluster.local for example). Windows can resolve FQDNs and services or names resolvable with only that suffix. For example, a pod spawned in the default namespace, will have the DNS suffix default.svc.cluster.local. On a Windows pod, you can resolve both kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local and kubernetes, but not the in-betweens, like kubernetes.default or kubernetes.default.svc.
  • On Windows, there are multiple DNS resolvers that can be used. As these come with slightly different behaviors, using the Resolve-DNSName utility for name query resolutions is recommended.

Kubernetes on Windows does not support single-stack "IPv6-only" networking. However,dual-stack IPv4/IPv6 networking for pods and nodes with single-family services is supported. See IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack networking for more details.

Session affinity

Setting the maximum session sticky time for Windows services using service.spec.sessionAffinityConfig.clientIP.timeoutSeconds is not supported.


Secrets are written in clear text on the node's volume (as compared to tmpfs/in-memory on linux). This means customers have to do two things

  1. Use file ACLs to secure the secrets file location
  2. Use volume-level encryption using BitLocker

RunAsUsername can be specified for Windows Pod's or Container's to execute the Container processes as a node-default user. This is roughly equivalent to RunAsUser.

Linux specific pod security context privileges such as SELinux, AppArmor, Seccomp, Capabilities (POSIX Capabilities), and others are not supported.

In addition, as mentioned already, privileged containers are not supported on Windows.


There are no differences in how most of the Kubernetes APIs work for Windows. The subtleties around what's different come down to differences in the OS and container runtime. In certain situations, some properties on workload APIs such as Pod or Container were designed with an assumption that they are implemented on Linux, failing to run on Windows.

At a high level, these OS concepts are different:

  • Identity - Linux uses userID (UID) and groupID (GID) which are represented as integer types. User and group names are not canonical - they are an alias in /etc/groups or /etc/passwd back to UID+GID. Windows uses a larger binary security identifier (SID) which is stored in the Windows Security Access Manager (SAM) database. This database is not shared between the host and containers, or between containers.
  • File permissions - Windows uses an access control list based on SIDs, rather than a bitmask of permissions and UID+GID
  • File paths - convention on Windows is to use \ instead of /. The Go IO libraries accept both types of file path separators. However, when you're setting a path or command line that's interpreted inside a container, \ may be needed.
  • Signals - Windows interactive apps handle termination differently, and can implement one or more of these:
    • A UI thread handles well-defined messages including WM_CLOSE
    • Console apps handle ctrl-c or ctrl-break using a Control Handler
    • Services register a Service Control Handler function that can accept SERVICE_CONTROL_STOP control codes

Exit Codes follow the same convention where 0 is success, nonzero is failure. The specific error codes may differ across Windows and Linux. However, exit codes passed from the Kubernetes components (kubelet, kube-proxy) are unchanged.

  • V1.Container.ResourceRequirements.limits.cpu and V1.Container.ResourceRequirements.limits.memory - Windows doesn't use hard limits for CPU allocations. Instead, a share system is used. The existing fields based on millicores are scaled into relative shares that are followed by the Windows scheduler. see: kuberuntime/helpers_windows.go, see: resource controls in Microsoft docs
    • Huge pages are not implemented in the Windows container runtime, and are not available. They require asserting a user privilege that's not configurable for containers.
  • V1.Container.ResourceRequirements.requests.cpu and V1.Container.ResourceRequirements.requests.memory - Requests are subtracted from node available resources, so they can be used to avoid overprovisioning a node. However, they cannot be used to guarantee resources in an overprovisioned node. They should be applied to all containers as a best practice if the operator wants to avoid overprovisioning entirely.
  • V1.Container.SecurityContext.allowPrivilegeEscalation - not possible on Windows, none of the capabilities are hooked up
  • V1.Container.SecurityContext.Capabilities - POSIX capabilities are not implemented on Windows
  • V1.Container.SecurityContext.privileged - Windows doesn't support privileged containers
  • V1.Container.SecurityContext.procMount - Windows doesn't have a /proc filesystem
  • V1.Container.SecurityContext.readOnlyRootFilesystem - not possible on Windows, write access is required for registry & system processes to run inside the container
  • V1.Container.SecurityContext.runAsGroup - not possible on Windows, no GID support
  • V1.Container.SecurityContext.runAsNonRoot - Windows does not have a root user. The closest equivalent is ContainerAdministrator which is an identity that doesn't exist on the node.
  • V1.Container.SecurityContext.runAsUser - not possible on Windows, no UID support as int.
  • V1.Container.SecurityContext.seLinuxOptions - not possible on Windows, no SELinux
  • V1.Container.terminationMessagePath - this has some limitations in that Windows doesn't support mapping single files. The default value is /dev/termination-log, which does work because it does not exist on Windows by default.
  • V1.Pod.hostIPC, v1.pod.hostpid - host namespace sharing is not possible on Windows
  • V1.Pod.hostNetwork - There is no Windows OS support to share the host network
  • V1.Pod.dnsPolicy - ClusterFirstWithHostNet - is not supported because Host Networking is not supported on Windows.
  • V1.Pod.podSecurityContext - see V1.PodSecurityContext below
  • V1.Pod.shareProcessNamespace - this is a beta feature, and depends on Linux namespaces which are not implemented on Windows. Windows cannot share process namespaces or the container's root filesystem. Only the network can be shared.
  • V1.Pod.terminationGracePeriodSeconds - this is not fully implemented in Docker on Windows, see: reference. The behavior today is that the ENTRYPOINT process is sent CTRL_SHUTDOWN_EVENT, then Windows waits 5 seconds by default, and finally shuts down all processes using the normal Windows shutdown behavior. The 5 second default is actually in the Windows registry inside the container, so it can be overridden when the container is built.
  • V1.Pod.volumeDevices - this is a beta feature, and is not implemented on Windows. Windows cannot attach raw block devices to pods.
  • V1.Pod.volumes - EmptyDir, Secret, ConfigMap, HostPath - all work and have tests in TestGrid
    • V1.emptyDirVolumeSource - the Node default medium is disk on Windows. Memory is not supported, as Windows does not have a built-in RAM disk.
  • V1.VolumeMount.mountPropagation - mount propagation is not supported on Windows.

None of the PodSecurityContext fields work on Windows. They're listed here for reference.

  • V1.PodSecurityContext.SELinuxOptions - SELinux is not available on Windows
  • V1.PodSecurityContext.RunAsUser - provides a UID, not available on Windows
  • V1.PodSecurityContext.RunAsGroup - provides a GID, not available on Windows
  • V1.PodSecurityContext.RunAsNonRoot - Windows does not have a root user. The closest equivalent is ContainerAdministrator which is an identity that doesn't exist on the node.
  • V1.PodSecurityContext.SupplementalGroups - provides GID, not available on Windows
  • V1.PodSecurityContext.Sysctls - these are part of the Linux sysctl interface. There's no equivalent on Windows.

Operating System Version Restrictions

Windows has strict compatibility rules, where the host OS version must match the container base image OS version. Only Windows containers with a container operating system of Windows Server 2019 are supported. Hyper-V isolation of containers, enabling some backward compatibility of Windows container image versions, is planned for a future release.

Getting Help and Troubleshooting

Your main source of help for troubleshooting your Kubernetes cluster should start with this section. Some additional, Windows-specific troubleshooting help is included in this section. Logs are an important element of troubleshooting issues in Kubernetes. Make sure to include them any time you seek troubleshooting assistance from other contributors. Follow the instructions in the SIG-Windows contributing guide on gathering logs.

  1. How do I know start.ps1 completed successfully?

    You should see kubelet, kube-proxy, and (if you chose Flannel as your networking solution) flanneld host-agent processes running on your node, with running logs being displayed in separate PowerShell windows. In addition to this, your Windows node should be listed as "Ready" in your Kubernetes cluster.

  2. Can I configure the Kubernetes node processes to run in the background as services?

    Kubelet and kube-proxy are already configured to run as native Windows Services, offering resiliency by re-starting the services automatically in the event of failure (for example a process crash). You have two options for configuring these node components as services.

    1. As native Windows Services

      Kubelet & kube-proxy can be run as native Windows Services using sc.exe.

      # Create the services for kubelet and kube-proxy in two separate commands
      sc.exe create <component_name> binPath= "<path_to_binary> --service <other_args>"
      # Please note that if the arguments contain spaces, they must be escaped.
      sc.exe create kubelet binPath= "C:\kubelet.exe --service --hostname-override 'minion' <other_args>"
      # Start the services
      Start-Service kubelet
      Start-Service kube-proxy
      # Stop the service
      Stop-Service kubelet (-Force)
      Stop-Service kube-proxy (-Force)
      # Query the service status
      Get-Service kubelet
      Get-Service kube-proxy
    2. Using nssm.exe

      You can also always use alternative service managers like nssm.exe to run these processes (flanneld, kubelet & kube-proxy) in the background for you. You can use this sample script, leveraging nssm.exe to register kubelet, kube-proxy, and flanneld.exe to run as Windows services in the background.

      register-svc.ps1 -NetworkMode <Network mode> -ManagementIP <Windows Node IP> -ClusterCIDR <Cluster subnet> -KubeDnsServiceIP <Kube-dns Service IP> -LogDir <Directory to place logs>
      # NetworkMode      = The network mode l2bridge (flannel host-gw, also the default value) or overlay (flannel vxlan) chosen as a network solution
      # ManagementIP     = The IP address assigned to the Windows node. You can use ipconfig to find this
      # ClusterCIDR      = The cluster subnet range. (Default value
      # KubeDnsServiceIP = The Kubernetes DNS service IP (Default value
      # LogDir           = The directory where kubelet and kube-proxy logs are redirected into their respective output files (Default value C:\k)

      If the above referenced script is not suitable, you can manually configure nssm.exe using the following examples.

      # Register flanneld.exe
      nssm install flanneld C:\flannel\flanneld.exe
      nssm set flanneld AppParameters --kubeconfig-file=c:\k\config --iface=<ManagementIP> --ip-masq=1 --kube-subnet-mgr=1
      nssm set flanneld AppEnvironmentExtra NODE_NAME=<hostname>
      nssm set flanneld AppDirectory C:\flannel
      nssm start flanneld
      # Register kubelet.exe
      # Microsoft releases the pause infrastructure container at mcr.microsoft.com/oss/kubernetes/pause:1.4.1
      nssm install kubelet C:\k\kubelet.exe
      nssm set kubelet AppParameters --hostname-override=<hostname> --v=6 --pod-infra-container-image=mcr.microsoft.com/oss/kubernetes/pause:1.4.1 --resolv-conf="" --allow-privileged=true --enable-debugging-handlers --cluster-dns=<DNS-service-IP> --cluster-domain=cluster.local --kubeconfig=c:\k\config --hairpin-mode=promiscuous-bridge --image-pull-progress-deadline=20m --cgroups-per-qos=false  --log-dir=<log directory> --logtostderr=false --enforce-node-allocatable="" --network-plugin=cni --cni-bin-dir=c:\k\cni --cni-conf-dir=c:\k\cni\config
      nssm set kubelet AppDirectory C:\k
      nssm start kubelet
      # Register kube-proxy.exe (l2bridge / host-gw)
      nssm install kube-proxy C:\k\kube-proxy.exe
      nssm set kube-proxy AppDirectory c:\k
      nssm set kube-proxy AppParameters --v=4 --proxy-mode=kernelspace --hostname-override=<hostname>--kubeconfig=c:\k\config --enable-dsr=false --log-dir=<log directory> --logtostderr=false
      nssm.exe set kube-proxy AppEnvironmentExtra KUBE_NETWORK=cbr0
      nssm set kube-proxy DependOnService kubelet
      nssm start kube-proxy
      # Register kube-proxy.exe (overlay / vxlan)
      nssm install kube-proxy C:\k\kube-proxy.exe
      nssm set kube-proxy AppDirectory c:\k
      nssm set kube-proxy AppParameters --v=4 --proxy-mode=kernelspace --feature-gates="WinOverlay=true" --hostname-override=<hostname> --kubeconfig=c:\k\config --network-name=vxlan0 --source-vip=<source-vip> --enable-dsr=false --log-dir=<log directory> --logtostderr=false
      nssm set kube-proxy DependOnService kubelet
      nssm start kube-proxy

      For initial troubleshooting, you can use the following flags in nssm.exe to redirect stdout and stderr to a output file:

      nssm set <Service Name> AppStdout C:\k\mysvc.log
      nssm set <Service Name> AppStderr C:\k\mysvc.log

      For additional details, see official nssm usage docs.

  3. My Windows Pods do not have network connectivity

    If you are using virtual machines, ensure that MAC spoofing is enabled on all the VM network adapter(s).

  4. My Windows Pods cannot ping external resources

    Windows Pods do not have outbound rules programmed for the ICMP protocol today. However, TCP/UDP is supported. When trying to demonstrate connectivity to resources outside of the cluster, please substitute ping <IP> with corresponding curl <IP> commands.

    If you are still facing problems, most likely your network configuration in cni.conf deserves some extra attention. You can always edit this static file. The configuration update will apply to any newly created Kubernetes resources.

    One of the Kubernetes networking requirements (see Kubernetes model) is for cluster communication to occur without NAT internally. To honor this requirement, there is an ExceptionList for all the communication where we do not want outbound NAT to occur. However, this also means that you need to exclude the external IP you are trying to query from the ExceptionList. Only then will the traffic originating from your Windows pods be SNAT'ed correctly to receive a response from the outside world. In this regard, your ExceptionList in cni.conf should look as follows:

    "ExceptionList": [
                    "",  # Cluster subnet
                    "",   # Service subnet
                    "" # Management (host) subnet
  5. My Windows node cannot access NodePort service

    Local NodePort access from the node itself fails. This is a known limitation. NodePort access works from other nodes or external clients.

  6. vNICs and HNS endpoints of containers are being deleted

    This issue can be caused when the hostname-override parameter is not passed to kube-proxy. To resolve it, users need to pass the hostname to kube-proxy as follows:

    C:\k\kube-proxy.exe --hostname-override=$(hostname)
  7. With flannel my nodes are having issues after rejoining a cluster

    Whenever a previously deleted node is being re-joined to the cluster, flannelD tries to assign a new pod subnet to the node. Users should remove the old pod subnet configuration files in the following paths:

    Remove-Item C:\k\SourceVip.json
    Remove-Item C:\k\SourceVipRequest.json
  8. After launching start.ps1, flanneld is stuck in "Waiting for the Network to be created"

    There are numerous reports of this issue; most likely it is a timing issue for when the management IP of the flannel network is set. A workaround is to relaunch start.ps1 or relaunch it manually as follows:

    PS C:> [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable("NODE_NAME", "<Windows_Worker_Hostname>")
    PS C:> C:\flannel\flanneld.exe --kubeconfig-file=c:\k\config --iface=<Windows_Worker_Node_IP> --ip-masq=1 --kube-subnet-mgr=1
  9. My Windows Pods cannot launch because of missing /run/flannel/subnet.env

    This indicates that Flannel didn't launch correctly. You can either try to restart flanneld.exe or you can copy the files over manually from /run/flannel/subnet.env on the Kubernetes master to C:\run\flannel\subnet.env on the Windows worker node and modify the FLANNEL_SUBNET row to a different number. For example, if node subnet is desired:

  10. My Windows node cannot access my services using the service IP

    This is a known limitation of the current networking stack on Windows. Windows Pods are able to access the service IP however.

  11. No network adapter is found when starting kubelet

    The Windows networking stack needs a virtual adapter for Kubernetes networking to work. If the following commands return no results (in an admin shell), virtual network creation — a necessary prerequisite for Kubelet to work — has failed:

    Get-HnsNetwork | ? Name -ieq "cbr0"
    Get-NetAdapter | ? Name -Like "vEthernet (Ethernet*"

    Often it is worthwhile to modify the InterfaceName parameter of the start.ps1 script, in cases where the host's network adapter isn't "Ethernet". Otherwise, consult the output of the start-kubelet.ps1 script to see if there are errors during virtual network creation.

  12. My Pods are stuck at "Container Creating" or restarting over and over

    Check that your pause image is compatible with your OS version. The instructions assume that both the OS and the containers are version 1803. If you have a later version of Windows, such as an Insider build, you need to adjust the images accordingly. Please refer to the Microsoft's Docker repository for images. Regardless, both the pause image Dockerfile and the sample service expect the image to be tagged as :latest.

  13. DNS resolution is not properly working

    Check the DNS limitations for Windows in this section.

  14. kubectl port-forward fails with "unable to do port forwarding: wincat not found"

    This was implemented in Kubernetes 1.15 by including wincat.exe in the pause infrastructure container mcr.microsoft.com/oss/kubernetes/pause:1.4.1. Be sure to use these versions or newer ones. If you would like to build your own pause infrastructure container be sure to include wincat.

  15. My Kubernetes installation is failing because my Windows Server node is behind a proxy

    If you are behind a proxy, the following PowerShell environment variables must be defined:

    [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable("HTTP_PROXY", "http://proxy.example.com:80/", [EnvironmentVariableTarget]::Machine)
    [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable("HTTPS_PROXY", "http://proxy.example.com:443/", [EnvironmentVariableTarget]::Machine)
  16. What is a pause container?

    In a Kubernetes Pod, an infrastructure or "pause" container is first created to host the container endpoint. Containers that belong to the same pod, including infrastructure and worker containers, share a common network namespace and endpoint (same IP and port space). Pause containers are needed to accommodate worker containers crashing or restarting without losing any of the networking configuration.

    The "pause" (infrastructure) image is hosted on Microsoft Container Registry (MCR). You can access it using mcr.microsoft.com/oss/kubernetes/pause:1.4.1. For more details, see the DOCKERFILE.

Further investigation

If these steps don't resolve your problem, you can get help running Windows containers on Windows nodes in Kubernetes through:

Reporting Issues and Feature Requests

If you have what looks like a bug, or you would like to make a feature request, please use the GitHub issue tracking system. You can open issues on GitHub and assign them to SIG-Windows. You should first search the list of issues in case it was reported previously and comment with your experience on the issue and add additional logs. SIG-Windows Slack is also a great avenue to get some initial support and troubleshooting ideas prior to creating a ticket.

If filing a bug, please include detailed information about how to reproduce the problem, such as:

  • Kubernetes version: kubectl version
  • Environment details: Cloud provider, OS distro, networking choice and configuration, and Docker version
  • Detailed steps to reproduce the problem
  • Relevant logs
  • Tag the issue sig/windows by commenting on the issue with /sig windows to bring it to a SIG-Windows member's attention

What's next

We have a lot of features in our roadmap. An abbreviated high level list is included below, but we encourage you to view our roadmap project and help us make Windows support better by contributing.

Hyper-V isolation

Hyper-V isolation is required to enable the following use cases for Windows containers in Kubernetes:

  • Hypervisor-based isolation between pods for additional security
  • Backwards compatibility allowing a node to run a newer Windows Server version without requiring containers to be rebuilt
  • Specific CPU/NUMA settings for a pod
  • Memory isolation and reservations

Hyper-V isolation support will be added in a later release and will require CRI-Containerd.

Deployment with kubeadm and cluster API

Kubeadm is becoming the de facto standard for users to deploy a Kubernetes cluster. Windows node support in kubeadm is currently a work-in-progress but a guide is available here. We are also making investments in cluster API to ensure Windows nodes are properly provisioned.

2 - Guide for scheduling Windows containers in Kubernetes

Windows applications constitute a large portion of the services and applications that run in many organizations. This guide walks you through the steps to configure and deploy a Windows container in Kubernetes.


  • Configure an example deployment to run Windows containers on the Windows node
  • (Optional) Configure an Active Directory Identity for your Pod using Group Managed Service Accounts (GMSA)

Before you begin

  • Create a Kubernetes cluster that includes a master and a worker node running Windows Server
  • It is important to note that creating and deploying services and workloads on Kubernetes behaves in much the same way for Linux and Windows containers. Kubectl commands to interface with the cluster are identical. The example in the section below is provided to jumpstart your experience with Windows containers.

Getting Started: Deploying a Windows container

To deploy a Windows container on Kubernetes, you must first create an example application. The example YAML file below creates a simple webserver application. Create a service spec named win-webserver.yaml with the contents below:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: win-webserver
    app: win-webserver
    # the port that this service should serve on
    - port: 80
      targetPort: 80
    app: win-webserver
  type: NodePort
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
    app: win-webserver
  name: win-webserver
  replicas: 2
      app: win-webserver
        app: win-webserver
      name: win-webserver
      - name: windowswebserver
        image: mcr.microsoft.com/windows/servercore:ltsc2019
        - powershell.exe
        - -command
        - "<#code used from https://gist.github.com/19WAS85/5424431#> ; $$listener = New-Object System.Net.HttpListener ; $$listener.Prefixes.Add('http://*:80/') ; $$listener.Start() ; $$callerCounts = @{} ; Write-Host('Listening at http://*:80/') ; while ($$listener.IsListening) { ;$$context = $$listener.GetContext() ;$$requestUrl = $$context.Request.Url ;$$clientIP = $$context.Request.RemoteEndPoint.Address ;$$response = $$context.Response ;Write-Host '' ;Write-Host('> {0}' -f $$requestUrl) ;  ;$$count = 1 ;$$k=$$callerCounts.Get_Item($$clientIP) ;if ($$k -ne $$null) { $$count += $$k } ;$$callerCounts.Set_Item($$clientIP, $$count) ;$$ip=(Get-NetAdapter | Get-NetIpAddress); $$header='<html><body><H1>Windows Container Web Server</H1>' ;$$callerCountsString='' ;$$callerCounts.Keys | % { $$callerCountsString+='<p>IP {0} callerCount {1} ' -f $$ip[1].IPAddress,$$callerCounts.Item($$_) } ;$$footer='</body></html>' ;$$content='{0}{1}{2}' -f $$header,$$callerCountsString,$$footer ;Write-Output $$content ;$$buffer = [System.Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes($$content) ;$$response.ContentLength64 = $$buffer.Length ;$$response.OutputStream.Write($$buffer, 0, $$buffer.Length) ;$$response.Close() ;$$responseStatus = $$response.StatusCode ;Write-Host('< {0}' -f $$responseStatus)  } ; "
      kubernetes.io/os: windows
Note: Port mapping is also supported, but for simplicity in this example the container port 80 is exposed directly to the service.
  1. Check that all nodes are healthy:

    kubectl get nodes
  2. Deploy the service and watch for pod updates:

    kubectl apply -f win-webserver.yaml
    kubectl get pods -o wide -w

    When the service is deployed correctly both Pods are marked as Ready. To exit the watch command, press Ctrl+C.

  3. Check that the deployment succeeded. To verify:

    • Two containers per pod on the Windows node, use docker ps
    • Two pods listed from the Linux master, use kubectl get pods
    • Node-to-pod communication across the network, curl port 80 of your pod IPs from the Linux master to check for a web server response
    • Pod-to-pod communication, ping between pods (and across hosts, if you have more than one Windows node) using docker exec or kubectl exec
    • Service-to-pod communication, curl the virtual service IP (seen under kubectl get services) from the Linux master and from individual pods
    • Service discovery, curl the service name with the Kubernetes default DNS suffix
    • Inbound connectivity, curl the NodePort from the Linux master or machines outside of the cluster
    • Outbound connectivity, curl external IPs from inside the pod using kubectl exec
Note: Windows container hosts are not able to access the IP of services scheduled on them due to current platform limitations of the Windows networking stack. Only Windows pods are able to access service IPs.


Capturing logs from workloads

Logs are an important element of observability; they enable users to gain insights into the operational aspect of workloads and are a key ingredient to troubleshooting issues. Because Windows containers and workloads inside Windows containers behave differently from Linux containers, users had a hard time collecting logs, limiting operational visibility. Windows workloads for example are usually configured to log to ETW (Event Tracing for Windows) or push entries to the application event log. LogMonitor, an open source tool by Microsoft, is the recommended way to monitor configured log sources inside a Windows container. LogMonitor supports monitoring event logs, ETW providers, and custom application logs, piping them to STDOUT for consumption by kubectl logs <pod>.

Follow the instructions in the LogMonitor GitHub page to copy its binaries and configuration files to all your containers and add the necessary entrypoints for LogMonitor to push your logs to STDOUT.

Using configurable Container usernames

Starting with Kubernetes v1.16, Windows containers can be configured to run their entrypoints and processes with different usernames than the image defaults. The way this is achieved is a bit different from the way it is done for Linux containers. Learn more about it here.

Managing Workload Identity with Group Managed Service Accounts

Starting with Kubernetes v1.14, Windows container workloads can be configured to use Group Managed Service Accounts (GMSA). Group Managed Service Accounts are a specific type of Active Directory account that provides automatic password management, simplified service principal name (SPN) management, and the ability to delegate the management to other administrators across multiple servers. Containers configured with a GMSA can access external Active Directory Domain resources while carrying the identity configured with the GMSA. Learn more about configuring and using GMSA for Windows containers here.

Taints and Tolerations

Users today need to use some combination of taints and node selectors in order to keep Linux and Windows workloads on their respective OS-specific nodes. This likely imposes a burden only on Windows users. The recommended approach is outlined below, with one of its main goals being that this approach should not break compatibility for existing Linux workloads.

Ensuring OS-specific workloads land on the appropriate container host

Users can ensure Windows containers can be scheduled on the appropriate host using Taints and Tolerations. All Kubernetes nodes today have the following default labels:

  • kubernetes.io/os = [windows|linux]
  • kubernetes.io/arch = [amd64|arm64|...]

If a Pod specification does not specify a nodeSelector like "kubernetes.io/os": windows, it is possible the Pod can be scheduled on any host, Windows or Linux. This can be problematic since a Windows container can only run on Windows and a Linux container can only run on Linux. The best practice is to use a nodeSelector.

However, we understand that in many cases users have a pre-existing large number of deployments for Linux containers, as well as an ecosystem of off-the-shelf configurations, such as community Helm charts, and programmatic Pod generation cases, such as with Operators. In those situations, you may be hesitant to make the configuration change to add nodeSelectors. The alternative is to use Taints. Because the kubelet can set Taints during registration, it could easily be modified to automatically add a taint when running on Windows only.

For example: --register-with-taints='os=windows:NoSchedule'

By adding a taint to all Windows nodes, nothing will be scheduled on them (that includes existing Linux Pods). In order for a Windows Pod to be scheduled on a Windows node, it would need both the nodeSelector to choose Windows, and the appropriate matching toleration.

    kubernetes.io/os: windows
    node.kubernetes.io/windows-build: '10.0.17763'
    - key: "os"
      operator: "Equal"
      value: "windows"
      effect: "NoSchedule"

Handling multiple Windows versions in the same cluster

The Windows Server version used by each pod must match that of the node. If you want to use multiple Windows Server versions in the same cluster, then you should set additional node labels and nodeSelectors.

Kubernetes 1.17 automatically adds a new label node.kubernetes.io/windows-build to simplify this. If you're running an older version, then it's recommended to add this label manually to Windows nodes.

This label reflects the Windows major, minor, and build number that need to match for compatibility. Here are values used today for each Windows Server version.

Product NameBuild Number(s)
Windows Server 201910.0.17763
Windows Server version 180910.0.17763
Windows Server version 190310.0.18362

Simplifying with RuntimeClass

RuntimeClass can be used to simplify the process of using taints and tolerations. A cluster administrator can create a RuntimeClass object which is used to encapsulate these taints and tolerations.

  1. Save this file to runtimeClasses.yml. It includes the appropriate nodeSelector for the Windows OS, architecture, and version.
apiVersion: node.k8s.io/v1
kind: RuntimeClass
  name: windows-2019
handler: 'docker'
    kubernetes.io/os: 'windows'
    kubernetes.io/arch: 'amd64'
    node.kubernetes.io/windows-build: '10.0.17763'
  - effect: NoSchedule
    key: os
    operator: Equal
    value: "windows"
  1. Run kubectl create -f runtimeClasses.yml using as a cluster administrator
  2. Add runtimeClassName: windows-2019 as appropriate to Pod specs

For example:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: iis-2019
    app: iis-2019
  replicas: 1
      name: iis-2019
        app: iis-2019
      runtimeClassName: windows-2019
      - name: iis
        image: mcr.microsoft.com/windows/servercore/iis:windowsservercore-ltsc2019
            cpu: 1
            memory: 800Mi
            cpu: .1
            memory: 300Mi
          - containerPort: 80
      app: iis-2019
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: iis
  type: LoadBalancer
  - protocol: TCP
    port: 80
    app: iis-2019