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Versions in CustomResourceDefinitions

This page explains how to add versioning information to CustomResourceDefinitions, to indicate the stability level of your CustomResourceDefinitions or advance your API to a new version with conversion between API representations. It also describes how to upgrade an object from one version to another.

Before you begin

You need to have a Kubernetes cluster, and the kubectl command-line tool must be configured to communicate with your cluster. If you do not already have a cluster, you can create one by using Minikube, or you can use one of these Kubernetes playgrounds:

To check the version, enter kubectl version.

  • Make sure your Kubernetes cluster has a master version of 1.16.0 or higher for apiextensions.k8s.io/v1, or 1.11.0 or higher for apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1.

  • Read about custom resources.

Overview

FEATURE STATE: Kubernetes v1.17 stable
This feature is stable, meaning:

  • The version name is vX where X is an integer.
  • Stable versions of features will appear in released software for many subsequent versions.

The CustomResourceDefinition API provides a workflow for introducing and upgrading to new versions of a CustomResourceDefinition.

When a CustomResourceDefinition is created, the first version is set in the CustomResourceDefinition spec.versions list to an appropriate stability level and a version number. For example v1beta1 would indicate that the first version is not yet stable. All custom resource objects will initially be stored at this version.

Once the CustomResourceDefinition is created, clients may begin using the v1beta1 API.

Later it might be necessary to add new version such as v1.

Adding a new version:

  1. Pick a conversion strategy. Since custom resource objects need to be able to be served at both versions, that means they will sometimes be served at a different version than their storage version. In order for this to be possible, the custom resource objects must sometimes be converted between the version they are stored at and the version they are served at. If the conversion involves schema changes and requires custom logic, a conversion webhook should be used. If there are no schema changes, the default None conversion strategy may be used and only the apiVersion field will be modified when serving different versions.
  2. If using conversion webhooks, create and deploy the conversion webhook. See the Webhook conversion for more details.
  3. Update the CustomResourceDefinition to include the new version in the spec.versions list with served:true. Also, set spec.conversion field to the selected conversion strategy. If using a conversion webhook, configure spec.conversion.webhookClientConfig field to call the webhook.

Once the new version is added, clients may incrementally migrate to the new version. It is perfectly safe for some clients to use the old version while others use the new version.

Migrate stored objects to the new version:

  1. See the upgrade existing objects to a new stored version section.

It is safe for clients to use both the old and new version before, during and after upgrading the objects to a new stored version.

Removing an old version:

  1. Ensure all clients are fully migrated to the new version. The kube-apiserver logs can reviewed to help identify any clients that are still accessing via the old version.
  2. Set served to false for the old version in the spec.versions list. If any clients are still unexpectedly using the old version they may begin reporting errors attempting to access the custom resource objects at the old version. If this occurs, switch back to using served:true on the old version, migrate the remaining clients to the new version and repeat this step.
  3. Ensure the upgrade of existing objects to the new stored version step has been completed.
    1. Verify that the stored is set to true for the new version in the spec.versions list in the CustomResourceDefinition.
    2. Verify that the old version is no longer listed in the CustomResourceDefinition status.storedVersions.
  4. Remove the old version from the CustomResourceDefinition spec.versions list.
  5. Drop conversion support for the old version in conversion webhooks.

Specify multiple versions

The CustomResourceDefinition API versions field can be used to support multiple versions of custom resources that you have developed. Versions can have different schemas, and conversion webhooks can convert custom resources between versions. Webhook conversions should follow the Kubernetes API conventions wherever applicable. Specifically, See the API change documentation for a set of useful gotchas and suggestions.

Note: In apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1, there was a version field instead of versions. The version field is deprecated and optional, but if it is not empty, it must match the first item in the versions field.

This example shows a CustomResourceDefinition with two versions. For the first example, the assumption is all versions share the same schema with no conversion between them. The comments in the YAML provide more context.

apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  # name must match the spec fields below, and be in the form: <plural>.<group>
  name: crontabs.example.com
spec:
  # group name to use for REST API: /apis/<group>/<version>
  group: example.com
  # list of versions supported by this CustomResourceDefinition
  versions:
  - name: v1beta1
    # Each version can be enabled/disabled by Served flag.
    served: true
    # One and only one version must be marked as the storage version.
    storage: true
    # A schema is required
    schema:
      openAPIV3Schema:
        type: object
        properties:
          host:
            type: string
          port:
            type: string
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: false
    schema:
      openAPIV3Schema:
        type: object
        properties:
          host:
            type: string
          port:
            type: string
  # The conversion section is introduced in Kubernetes 1.13+ with a default value of
  # None conversion (strategy sub-field set to None).
  conversion:
    # None conversion assumes the same schema for all versions and only sets the apiVersion
    # field of custom resources to the proper value
    strategy: None
  # either Namespaced or Cluster
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    # plural name to be used in the URL: /apis/<group>/<version>/<plural>
    plural: crontabs
    # singular name to be used as an alias on the CLI and for display
    singular: crontab
    # kind is normally the CamelCased singular type. Your resource manifests use this.
    kind: CronTab
    # shortNames allow shorter string to match your resource on the CLI
    shortNames:
    - ct

# Deprecated in v1.16 in favor of apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  # name must match the spec fields below, and be in the form: <plural>.<group>
  name: crontabs.example.com
spec:
  # group name to use for REST API: /apis/<group>/<version>
  group: example.com
  # list of versions supported by this CustomResourceDefinition
  versions:
  - name: v1beta1
    # Each version can be enabled/disabled by Served flag.
    served: true
    # One and only one version must be marked as the storage version.
    storage: true
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: false
  validation:
    openAPIV3Schema:
      type: object
      properties:
        host:
          type: string
        port:
          type: string
  # The conversion section is introduced in Kubernetes 1.13+ with a default value of
  # None conversion (strategy sub-field set to None).
  conversion:
    # None conversion assumes the same schema for all versions and only sets the apiVersion
    # field of custom resources to the proper value
    strategy: None
  # either Namespaced or Cluster
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    # plural name to be used in the URL: /apis/<group>/<version>/<plural>
    plural: crontabs
    # singular name to be used as an alias on the CLI and for display
    singular: crontab
    # kind is normally the CamelCased singular type. Your resource manifests use this.
    kind: CronTab
    # shortNames allow shorter string to match your resource on the CLI
    shortNames:
    - ct

You can save the CustomResourceDefinition in a YAML file, then use kubectl apply to create it.

kubectl apply -f my-versioned-crontab.yaml

After creation, the API server starts to serve each enabled version at an HTTP REST endpoint. In the above example, the API versions are available at /apis/example.com/v1beta1 and /apis/example.com/v1.

Version priority

Regardless of the order in which versions are defined in a CustomResourceDefinition, the version with the highest priority is used by kubectl as the default version to access objects. The priority is determined by parsing the name field to determine the version number, the stability (GA, Beta, or Alpha), and the sequence within that stability level.

The algorithm used for sorting the versions is designed to sort versions in the same way that the Kubernetes project sorts Kubernetes versions. Versions start with a v followed by a number, an optional beta or alpha designation, and optional additional numeric versioning information. Broadly, a version string might look like v2 or v2beta1. Versions are sorted using the following algorithm:

  • Entries that follow Kubernetes version patterns are sorted before those that do not.
  • For entries that follow Kubernetes version patterns, the numeric portions of the version string is sorted largest to smallest.
  • If the strings beta or alpha follow the first numeric portion, they sorted in that order, after the equivalent string without the beta or alpha suffix (which is presumed to be the GA version).
  • If another number follows the beta, or alpha, those numbers are also sorted from largest to smallest.
  • Strings that don’t fit the above format are sorted alphabetically and the numeric portions are not treated specially. Notice that in the example below, foo1 is sorted above foo10. This is different from the sorting of the numeric portion of entries that do follow the Kubernetes version patterns.

This might make sense if you look at the following sorted version list:

- v10
- v2
- v1
- v11beta2
- v10beta3
- v3beta1
- v12alpha1
- v11alpha2
- foo1
- foo10

For the example in Specify multiple versions, the version sort order is v1, followed by v1beta1. This causes the kubectl command to use v1 as the default version unless the provided object specifies the version.

Webhook conversion

FEATURE STATE: Kubernetes v1.17 stable
This feature is stable, meaning:

  • The version name is vX where X is an integer.
  • Stable versions of features will appear in released software for many subsequent versions.
Note: Webhook conversion is available as beta since 1.15, and as alpha since Kubernetes 1.13. The CustomResourceWebhookConversion feature must be enabled, which is the case automatically for many clusters for beta features. Please refer to the feature gate documentation for more information.

The above example has a None conversion between versions which only sets the apiVersion field on conversion and does not change the rest of the object. The API server also supports webhook conversions that call an external service in case a conversion is required. For example when:

  • custom resource is requested in a different version than stored version.
  • Watch is created in one version but the changed object is stored in another version.
  • custom resource PUT request is in a different version than storage version.

To cover all of these cases and to optimize conversion by the API server, the conversion requests may contain multiple objects in order to minimize the external calls. The webhook should perform these conversions independently.

Write a conversion webhook server

Please refer to the implementation of the custom resource conversion webhook server that is validated in a Kubernetes e2e test. The webhook handles the ConversionReview requests sent by the API servers, and sends back conversion results wrapped in ConversionResponse. Note that the request contains a list of custom resources that need to be converted independently without changing the order of objects. The example server is organized in a way to be reused for other conversions. Most of the common code are located in the framework file that leaves only one function to be implemented for different conversions.

Note: The example conversion webhook server leaves the ClientAuth field empty, which defaults to NoClientCert. This means that the webhook server does not authenticate the identity of the clients, supposedly API servers. If you need mutual TLS or other ways to authenticate the clients, see how to authenticate API servers.

Permissible mutations

A conversion webhook must not mutate anything inside of metadata of the converted object other than labels and annotations. Attempted changes to name, UID and namespace are rejected and fail the request which caused the conversion. All other changes are just ignored.

Deploy the conversion webhook service

Documentation for deploying the conversion webhook is the same as for the admission webhook example service. The assumption for next sections is that the conversion webhook server is deployed to a service named example-conversion-webhook-server in default namespace and serving traffic on path /crdconvert.

Note: When the webhook server is deployed into the Kubernetes cluster as a service, it has to be exposed via a service on port 443 (The server itself can have an arbitrary port but the service object should map it to port 443). The communication between the API server and the webhook service may fail if a different port is used for the service.

Configure CustomResourceDefinition to use conversion webhooks

The None conversion example can be extended to use the conversion webhook by modifying conversion section of the spec:

apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  # name must match the spec fields below, and be in the form: <plural>.<group>
  name: crontabs.example.com
spec:
  # group name to use for REST API: /apis/<group>/<version>
  group: example.com
  # list of versions supported by this CustomResourceDefinition
  versions:
  - name: v1beta1
    # Each version can be enabled/disabled by Served flag.
    served: true
    # One and only one version must be marked as the storage version.
    storage: true
    # Each version can define it's own schema when there is no top-level
    # schema is defined.
    schema:
      openAPIV3Schema:
        type: object
        properties:
          hostPort:
            type: string
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: false
    schema:
      openAPIV3Schema:
        type: object
        properties:
          host:
            type: string
          port:
            type: string
  conversion:
    # a Webhook strategy instruct API server to call an external webhook for any conversion between custom resources.
    strategy: Webhook
    # webhook is required when strategy is `Webhook` and it configures the webhook endpoint to be called by API server.
    webhook:
      # conversionReviewVersions indicates what ConversionReview versions are understood/preferred by the webhook.
      # The first version in the list understood by the API server is sent to the webhook.
      # The webhook must respond with a ConversionReview object in the same version it received.
      conversionReviewVersions: ["v1","v1beta1"]
      clientConfig:
        service:
          namespace: default
          name: example-conversion-webhook-server
          path: /crdconvert
        caBundle: "Ci0tLS0tQk...<base64-encoded PEM bundle>...tLS0K"
  # either Namespaced or Cluster
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    # plural name to be used in the URL: /apis/<group>/<version>/<plural>
    plural: crontabs
    # singular name to be used as an alias on the CLI and for display
    singular: crontab
    # kind is normally the CamelCased singular type. Your resource manifests use this.
    kind: CronTab
    # shortNames allow shorter string to match your resource on the CLI
    shortNames:
    - ct

# Deprecated in v1.16 in favor of apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  # name must match the spec fields below, and be in the form: <plural>.<group>
  name: crontabs.example.com
spec:
  # group name to use for REST API: /apis/<group>/<version>
  group: example.com
  # prunes object fields that are not specified in OpenAPI schemas below.
  preserveUnknownFields: false
  # list of versions supported by this CustomResourceDefinition
  versions:
  - name: v1beta1
    # Each version can be enabled/disabled by Served flag.
    served: true
    # One and only one version must be marked as the storage version.
    storage: true
    # Each version can define it's own schema when there is no top-level
    # schema is defined.
    schema:
      openAPIV3Schema:
        type: object
        properties:
          hostPort:
            type: string
  - name: v1
    served: true
    storage: false
    schema:
      openAPIV3Schema:
        type: object
        properties:
          host:
            type: string
          port:
            type: string
  conversion:
    # a Webhook strategy instruct API server to call an external webhook for any conversion between custom resources.
    strategy: Webhook
    # webhookClientConfig is required when strategy is `Webhook` and it configures the webhook endpoint to be called by API server.
    webhookClientConfig:
      service:
        namespace: default
        name: example-conversion-webhook-server
        path: /crdconvert
      caBundle: "Ci0tLS0tQk...<base64-encoded PEM bundle>...tLS0K"
  # either Namespaced or Cluster
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    # plural name to be used in the URL: /apis/<group>/<version>/<plural>
    plural: crontabs
    # singular name to be used as an alias on the CLI and for display
    singular: crontab
    # kind is normally the CamelCased singular type. Your resource manifests use this.
    kind: CronTab
    # shortNames allow shorter string to match your resource on the CLI
    shortNames:
    - ct

You can save the CustomResourceDefinition in a YAML file, then use kubectl apply to apply it.

kubectl apply -f my-versioned-crontab-with-conversion.yaml

Make sure the conversion service is up and running before applying new changes.

Contacting the webhook

Once the API server has determined a request should be sent to a conversion webhook, it needs to know how to contact the webhook. This is specified in the webhookClientConfig stanza of the webhook configuration.

Conversion webhooks can either be called via a URL or a service reference, and can optionally include a custom CA bundle to use to verify the TLS connection.

URL

url gives the location of the webhook, in standard URL form (scheme://host:port/path).

The host should not refer to a service running in the cluster; use a service reference by specifying the service field instead. The host might be resolved via external DNS in some apiservers (i.e., kube-apiserver cannot resolve in-cluster DNS as that would be a layering violation). host may also be an IP address.

Please note that using localhost or 127.0.0.1 as a host is risky unless you take great care to run this webhook on all hosts which run an apiserver which might need to make calls to this webhook. Such installs are likely to be non-portable, i.e., not easy to turn up in a new cluster.

The scheme must be “https”; the URL must begin with “https://“.

Attempting to use a user or basic auth e.g. “user:password@” is not allowed. Fragments (“#…”) and query parameters (“?…”) are also not allowed.

Here is an example of a conversion webhook configured to call a URL (and expects the TLS certificate to be verified using system trust roots, so does not specify a caBundle):

apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
...
spec:
  ...
  conversion:
    strategy: Webhook
    webhook:
      clientConfig:
        url: "https://my-webhook.example.com:9443/my-webhook-path"
...

# Deprecated in v1.16 in favor of apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
...
spec:
  ...
  conversion:
    strategy: Webhook
    webhookClientConfig:
      url: "https://my-webhook.example.com:9443/my-webhook-path"
...

Service Reference

The service stanza inside webhookClientConfig is a reference to the service for a conversion webhook. If the webhook is running within the cluster, then you should use service instead of url. The service namespace and name are required. The port is optional and defaults to 443. The path is optional and defaults to “/”.

Here is an example of a webhook that is configured to call a service on port “1234” at the subpath “/my-path”, and to verify the TLS connection against the ServerName my-service-name.my-service-namespace.svc using a custom CA bundle.

apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1b
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
...
spec:
  ...
  conversion:
    strategy: Webhook
    webhook:
      clientConfig:
        service:
          namespace: my-service-namespace
          name: my-service-name
          path: /my-path
          port: 1234
        caBundle: "Ci0tLS0tQk...<base64-encoded PEM bundle>...tLS0K"
...

# Deprecated in v1.16 in favor of apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
...
spec:
  ...
  conversion:
    strategy: Webhook
    webhookClientConfig:
      service:
        namespace: my-service-namespace
        name: my-service-name
        path: /my-path
        port: 1234
      caBundle: "Ci0tLS0tQk...<base64-encoded PEM bundle>...tLS0K"
...

Webhook request and response

Request

Webhooks are sent a POST request, with Content-Type: application/json, with a ConversionReview API object in the apiextensions.k8s.io API group serialized to JSON as the body.

Webhooks can specify what versions of ConversionReview objects they accept with the conversionReviewVersions field in their CustomResourceDefinition:

apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
...
spec:
  ...
  conversion:
    strategy: Webhook
    webhook:
      conversionReviewVersions: ["v1", "v1beta1"]
      ...

conversionReviewVersions is a required field when creating apiextensions.k8s.io/v1 custom resource definitions. Webhooks are required to support at least one ConversionReview version understood by the current and previous API server.

# Deprecated in v1.16 in favor of apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
...
spec:
  ...
  conversion:
    strategy: Webhook
    conversionReviewVersions: ["v1", "v1beta1"]
    ...

If no conversionReviewVersions are specified, the default when creating apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1 custom resource definitions is v1beta1.

API servers send the first ConversionReview version in the conversionReviewVersions list they support. If none of the versions in the list are supported by the API server, the custom resource definition will not be allowed to be created. If an API server encounters a conversion webhook configuration that was previously created and does not support any of the ConversionReview versions the API server knows how to send, attempts to call to the webhook will fail.

This example shows the data contained in an ConversionReview object for a request to convert CronTab objects to example.com/v1:

{
  "apiVersion": "apiextensions.k8s.io/v1",
  "kind": "ConversionReview",
  "request": {
    # Random uid uniquely identifying this conversion call
    "uid": "705ab4f5-6393-11e8-b7cc-42010a800002",
    
    # The API group and version the objects should be converted to
    "desiredAPIVersion": "example.com/v1",
    
    # The list of objects to convert.
    # May contain one or more objects, in one or more versions.
    "objects": [
      {
        "kind": "CronTab",
        "apiVersion": "example.com/v1beta1",
        "metadata": {
          "creationTimestamp": "2019-09-04T14:03:02Z",
          "name": "local-crontab",
          "namespace": "default",
          "resourceVersion": "143",
          "uid": "3415a7fc-162b-4300-b5da-fd6083580d66"
        },
        "hostPort": "localhost:1234"
      },
      {
        "kind": "CronTab",
        "apiVersion": "example.com/v1beta1",
        "metadata": {
          "creationTimestamp": "2019-09-03T13:02:01Z",
          "name": "remote-crontab",
          "resourceVersion": "12893",
          "uid": "359a83ec-b575-460d-b553-d859cedde8a0"
        },
        "hostPort": "example.com:2345"
      }
    ]
  }
}

{
  # Deprecated in v1.16 in favor of apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
  "apiVersion": "apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1",
  "kind": "ConversionReview",
  "request": {
    # Random uid uniquely identifying this conversion call
    "uid": "705ab4f5-6393-11e8-b7cc-42010a800002",
    
    # The API group and version the objects should be converted to
    "desiredAPIVersion": "example.com/v1",
    
    # The list of objects to convert.
    # May contain one or more objects, in one or more versions.
    "objects": [
      {
        "kind": "CronTab",
        "apiVersion": "example.com/v1beta1",
        "metadata": {
          "creationTimestamp": "2019-09-04T14:03:02Z",
          "name": "local-crontab",
          "namespace": "default",
          "resourceVersion": "143",
          "uid": "3415a7fc-162b-4300-b5da-fd6083580d66"
        },
        "hostPort": "localhost:1234"
      },
      {
        "kind": "CronTab",
        "apiVersion": "example.com/v1beta1",
        "metadata": {
          "creationTimestamp": "2019-09-03T13:02:01Z",
          "name": "remote-crontab",
          "resourceVersion": "12893",
          "uid": "359a83ec-b575-460d-b553-d859cedde8a0"
        },
        "hostPort": "example.com:2345"
      }
    ]
  }
}

Response

Webhooks respond with a 200 HTTP status code, Content-Type: application/json, and a body containing a ConversionReview object (in the same version they were sent), with the response stanza populated, serialized to JSON.

If conversion succeeds, a webhook should return a response stanza containing the following fields: * uid, copied from the request.uid sent to the webhook * result, set to {"status":"Success"} * convertedObjects, containing all of the objects from request.objects, converted to request.desiredVersion

Example of a minimal successful response from a webhook:

{
  "apiVersion": "apiextensions.k8s.io/v1",
  "kind": "ConversionReview",
  "response": {
    # must match <request.uid>
    "uid": "705ab4f5-6393-11e8-b7cc-42010a800002",
    "result": {
      "status": "Success"
    },
    # Objects must match the order of request.objects, and have apiVersion set to <request.desiredAPIVersion>.
    # kind, metadata.uid, metadata.name, and metadata.namespace fields must not be changed by the webhook.
    # metadata.labels and metadata.annotations fields may be changed by the webhook.
    # All other changes to metadata fields by the webhook are ignored.
    "convertedObjects": [
      {
        "kind": "CronTab",
        "apiVersion": "example.com/v1",
        "metadata": {
          "creationTimestamp": "2019-09-04T14:03:02Z",
          "name": "local-crontab",
          "namespace": "default",
          "resourceVersion": "143",
          "uid": "3415a7fc-162b-4300-b5da-fd6083580d66"
        },
        "host": "localhost",
        "port": "1234"
      },
      {
        "kind": "CronTab",
        "apiVersion": "example.com/v1",
        "metadata": {
          "creationTimestamp": "2019-09-03T13:02:01Z",
          "name": "remote-crontab",
          "resourceVersion": "12893",
          "uid": "359a83ec-b575-460d-b553-d859cedde8a0"
        },
        "host": "example.com",
        "port": "2345"
      }
    ]
  }
}

{
  # Deprecated in v1.16 in favor of apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
  "apiVersion": "apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1",
  "kind": "ConversionReview",
  "response": {
    # must match <request.uid>
    "uid": "705ab4f5-6393-11e8-b7cc-42010a800002",
    "result": {
      "status": "Failed"
    },
    # Objects must match the order of request.objects, and have apiVersion set to <request.desiredAPIVersion>.
    # kind, metadata.uid, metadata.name, and metadata.namespace fields must not be changed by the webhook.
    # metadata.labels and metadata.annotations fields may be changed by the webhook.
    # All other changes to metadata fields by the webhook are ignored.
    "convertedObjects": [
      {
        "kind": "CronTab",
        "apiVersion": "example.com/v1",
        "metadata": {
          "creationTimestamp": "2019-09-04T14:03:02Z",
          "name": "local-crontab",
          "namespace": "default",
          "resourceVersion": "143",
          "uid": "3415a7fc-162b-4300-b5da-fd6083580d66"
        },
        "host": "localhost",
        "port": "1234"
      },
      {
        "kind": "CronTab",
        "apiVersion": "example.com/v1",
        "metadata": {
          "creationTimestamp": "2019-09-03T13:02:01Z",
          "name": "remote-crontab",
          "resourceVersion": "12893",
          "uid": "359a83ec-b575-460d-b553-d859cedde8a0"
        },
        "host": "example.com",
        "port": "2345"
      }
    ]
  }
}

If conversion fails, a webhook should return a response stanza containing the following fields: * uid, copied from the request.uid sent to the webhook * result, set to {"status":"Failed"}

Warning: Failing conversion can disrupt read and write access to the custom resources, including the ability to update or delete the resources. Conversion failures should be avoided whenever possible, and should not be used to enforce validation constraints (use validation schemas or webhook admission instead).

Example of a response from a webhook indicating a conversion request failed, with an optional message:

{
  "apiVersion": "apiextensions.k8s.io/v1",
  "kind": "ConversionReview",
  "response": {
    "uid": "<value from request.uid>",
    "result": {
      "status": "Failed",
      "message": "hostPort could not be parsed into a separate host and port"
    }
  }
}

{
  # Deprecated in v1.16 in favor of apiextensions.k8s.io/v1
  "apiVersion": "apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1",
  "kind": "ConversionReview",
  "response": {
    "uid": "<value from request.uid>",
    "result": {
      "status": "Failed",
      "message": "hostPort could not be parsed into a separate host and port"
    }
  }
}

Writing, reading, and updating versioned CustomResourceDefinition objects

When an object is written, it is persisted at the version designated as the storage version at the time of the write. If the storage version changes, existing objects are never converted automatically. However, newly-created or updated objects are written at the new storage version. It is possible for an object to have been written at a version that is no longer served.

When you read an object, you specify the version as part of the path. If you specify a version that is different from the object’s persisted version, Kubernetes returns the object to you at the version you requested, but the persisted object is neither changed on disk, nor converted in any way (other than changing the apiVersion string) while serving the request. You can request an object at any version that is currently served.

If you update an existing object, it is rewritten at the version that is currently the storage version. This is the only way that objects can change from one version to another.

To illustrate this, consider the following hypothetical series of events:

  1. The storage version is v1beta1. You create an object. It is persisted in storage at version v1beta1
  2. You add version v1 to your CustomResourceDefinition and designate it as the storage version.
  3. You read your object at version v1beta1, then you read the object again at version v1. Both returned objects are identical except for the apiVersion field.
  4. You create a new object. It is persisted in storage at version v1. You now have two objects, one of which is at v1beta1, and the other of which is at v1.
  5. You update the first object. It is now persisted at version v1 since that is the current storage version.

Previous storage versions

The API server records each version which has ever been marked as the storage version in the status field storedVersions. Objects may have been persisted at any version that has ever been designated as a storage version. No objects can exist in storage at a version that has never been a storage version.

Upgrade existing objects to a new stored version

When deprecating versions and dropping support, select a storage upgrade procedure.

Option 1: Use the Storage Version Migrator

  1. Run the storage Version migrator
  2. Remove the old version from the CustomResourceDefinition status.storedVersions field.

Option 2: Manually upgrade the existing objects to a new stored version

The following is an example procedure to upgrade from v1beta1 to v1.

  1. Set v1 as the storage in the CustomResourceDefinition file and apply it using kubectl. The storedVersions is now v1beta1, v1.
  2. Write an upgrade procedure to list all existing objects and write them with the same content. This forces the backend to write objects in the current storage version, which is v1.
  3. Remove v1beta1 from the CustomResourceDefinition status.storedVersions field.

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