Tasks

Step-by-step instructions for performing operations with Kubernetes.

Edit This Page

Extend the Kubernetes API with CustomResourceDefinitions

This page shows how to install a custom resource into the Kubernetes API by creating a CustomResourceDefinition.

Before you begin

You need to have a Kubernetes cluster, and the kubectl command-line tool must be configured to communicate with your cluster. If you do not already have a cluster, you can create one by using Minikube, or you can use one of these Kubernetes playgrounds:

To check the version, enter kubectl version.

Create a CustomResourceDefinition

When you create a new CustomResourceDefinition (CRD), the Kubernetes API Server reacts by creating a new RESTful resource path, either namespaced or cluster-scoped, as specified in the CRD’s scope field. As with existing built-in objects, deleting a namespace deletes all custom objects in that namespace. CustomResourceDefinitions themselves are non-namespaced and are available to all namespaces.

For example, if you save the following CustomResourceDefinition to resourcedefinition.yaml:

apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  # name must match the spec fields below, and be in the form: <plural>.<group>
  name: crontabs.stable.example.com
spec:
  # group name to use for REST API: /apis/<group>/<version>
  group: stable.example.com
  # version name to use for REST API: /apis/<group>/<version>
  version: v1
  # either Namespaced or Cluster
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    # plural name to be used in the URL: /apis/<group>/<version>/<plural>
    plural: crontabs
    # singular name to be used as an alias on the CLI and for display
    singular: crontab
    # kind is normally the CamelCased singular type. Your resource manifests use this.
    kind: CronTab
    # shortNames allow shorter string to match your resource on the CLI
    shortNames:
    - ct

And create it:

kubectl create -f resourcedefinition.yaml

Then a new namespaced RESTful API endpoint is created at:

/apis/stable.example.com/v1/namespaces/*/crontabs/...

This endpoint URL can then be used to create and manage custom objects. The kind of these objects will be CronTab from the spec of the CustomResourceDefinition object you created above.

Create custom objects

After the CustomResourceDefinition object has been created, you can create custom objects. Custom objects can contain custom fields. These fields can contain arbitrary JSON. In the following example, the cronSpec and image custom fields are set in a custom object of kind CronTab. The kind CronTab comes from the spec of the CustomResourceDefinition object you created above.

If you save the following YAML to my-crontab.yaml:

apiVersion: "stable.example.com/v1"
kind: CronTab
metadata:
  name: my-new-cron-object
spec:
  cronSpec: "* * * * */5"
  image: my-awesome-cron-image

and create it:

kubectl create -f my-crontab.yaml

You can then manage your CronTab objects using kubectl. For example:

kubectl get crontab

Should print a list like this:

NAME                 KIND
my-new-cron-object   CronTab.v1.stable.example.com

Note that resource names are not case-sensitive when using kubectl, and you can use either the singular or plural forms defined in the CRD, as well as any short names.

You can also view the raw YAML data:

kubectl get ct -o yaml

You should see that it contains the custom cronSpec and image fields from the yaml you used to create it:

apiVersion: v1
items:
- apiVersion: stable.example.com/v1
  kind: CronTab
  metadata:
    clusterName: ""
    creationTimestamp: 2017-05-31T12:56:35Z
    deletionGracePeriodSeconds: null
    deletionTimestamp: null
    name: my-new-cron-object
    namespace: default
    resourceVersion: "285"
    selfLink: /apis/stable.example.com/v1/namespaces/default/crontabs/my-new-cron-object
    uid: 9423255b-4600-11e7-af6a-28d2447dc82b
  spec:
    cronSpec: '* * * * */5'
    image: my-awesome-cron-image
kind: List
metadata:
  resourceVersion: ""
  selfLink: ""

Delete a CustomResourceDefinition

When you delete a CustomResourceDefinition, the server will uninstall the RESTful API endpoint and delete all custom objects stored in it.

kubectl delete -f resourcedefinition.yaml
kubectl get crontabs
Error from server (NotFound): Unable to list "crontabs": the server could not find the requested resource (get crontabs.stable.example.com)

If you later recreate the same CustomResourceDefinition, it will start out empty.

Advanced topics

Finalizers

Finalizers allow controllers to implement asynchronous pre-delete hooks. Custom objects support finalizers just like built-in objects.

You can add a finalizer to a custom object like this:

apiVersion: "stable.example.com/v1"
kind: CronTab
metadata:
  finalizers:
  - finalizer.stable.example.com

The first delete request on an object with finalizers merely sets a value for the metadata.deletionTimestamp field instead of deleting it. This triggers controllers watching the object to execute any finalizers they handle.

Each controller then removes its finalizer from the list and issues the delete request again. This request only deletes the object if the list of finalizers is now empty, meaning all finalizers are done.

Validation

Validation of custom objects is possible via OpenAPI v3 schema. Additionally, the following restrictions are applied to the schema:

This feature is alpha in v1.8 and may change in backward incompatible ways. Enable this feature using the CustomResourceValidation feature gate on the kube-apiserver:

--feature-gates=CustomResourceValidation=true

The schema is defined in the CustomResourceDefinition. In the following example, the CustomResourceDefinition applies the following validations on the custom object:

Save the CustomResourceDefinition to resourcedefinition.yaml:

apiVersion: apiextensions.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: CustomResourceDefinition
metadata:
  name: crontabs.stable.example.com
spec:
  group: stable.example.com
  version: v1
  scope: Namespaced
  names:
    plural: crontabs
    singular: crontab
    kind: CronTab
    shortNames:
    - ct
  validation:
   # openAPIV3Schema is the schema for validating custom objects.
    openAPIV3Schema:
      properties:
        spec:
          properties:
            cronSpec:
              type: string
              pattern: '^(\d+|\*)(/\d+)?(\s+(\d+|\*)(/\d+)?){4}$'
            replicas:
              type: integer
              minimum: 1
              maximum: 10

And create it:

kubectl create -f resourcedefinition.yaml

A request to create a custom object of kind CronTab will be rejected if there are invalid values in its fields. In the following example, the custom object contains fields with invalid values:

If you save the following YAML to my-crontab.yaml:

apiVersion: "stable.example.com/v1"
kind: CronTab
metadata:
  name: my-new-cron-object
spec:
  cronSpec: "* * * *"
  image: my-awesome-cron-image
  replicas: 15

and create it:

kubectl create -f my-crontab.yaml

you will get an error:

The CronTab "my-new-cron-object" is invalid: []: Invalid value: map[string]interface {}{"apiVersion":"stable.example.com/v1", "kind":"CronTab", "metadata":map[string]interface {}{"name":"my-new-cron-object", "namespace":"default", "deletionTimestamp":interface {}(nil), "deletionGracePeriodSeconds":(*int64)(nil), "creationTimestamp":"2017-09-05T05:20:07Z", "uid":"e14d79e7-91f9-11e7-a598-f0761cb232d1", "selfLink":"", "clusterName":""}, "spec":map[string]interface {}{"cronSpec":"* * * *", "image":"my-awesome-cron-image", "replicas":15}}:
validation failure list:
spec.cronSpec in body should match '^(\d+|\*)(/\d+)?(\s+(\d+|\*)(/\d+)?){4}$'
spec.replicas in body should be less than or equal to 10

If the fields contain valid values, the object creation request is accepted.

Save the following YAML to my-crontab.yaml:

apiVersion: "stable.example.com/v1"
kind: CronTab
metadata:
  name: my-new-cron-object
spec:
  cronSpec: "* * * * */5"
  image: my-awesome-cron-image
  replicas: 5

And create it:

kubectl create -f my-crontab.yaml
crontab "my-new-cron-object" created

What’s next

Analytics

Create an Issue Edit this Page