Cloud Controller Manager Administration
Kubernetes v1.11 [beta]
Since cloud providers develop and release at a different pace compared to the
Kubernetes project, abstracting the provider-specific code to the
binary allows cloud vendors to evolve independently from the core Kubernetes code.
cloud-controller-manager can be linked to any cloud provider that satisfies
For backwards compatibility, the
provided in the core Kubernetes project uses the same cloud libraries as
Cloud providers already supported in Kubernetes core are expected to use the in-tree
cloud-controller-manager to transition out of Kubernetes core.
Every cloud has their own set of requirements for running their own cloud provider
integration, it should not be too different from the requirements when running
kube-controller-manager. As a general rule of thumb you'll need:
- cloud authentication/authorization: your cloud may require a token or IAM rules to allow access to their APIs
- kubernetes authentication/authorization: cloud-controller-manager may need RBAC rules set to speak to the kubernetes apiserver
- high availability: like kube-controller-manager, you may want a high available setup for cloud controller manager using leader election (on by default).
Successfully running cloud-controller-manager requires some changes to your cluster configuration.
kube-controller-managermust be set according to the user's usage of external CCM. If the user has an external CCM (not the internal cloud controller loops in the Kubernetes Controller Manager), then
--cloud-provider=externalmust be specified. Otherwise, it should not be specified.
Keep in mind that setting up your cluster to use cloud controller manager will change your cluster behaviour in a few ways:
- Components that specify
--cloud-provider=externalwill add a taint
node.cloudprovider.kubernetes.io/uninitializedwith an effect
NoScheduleduring initialization. This marks the node as needing a second initialization from an external controller before it can be scheduled work. Note that in the event that cloud controller manager is not available, new nodes in the cluster will be left unschedulable. The taint is important since the scheduler may require cloud specific information about nodes such as their region or type (high cpu, gpu, high memory, spot instance, etc).
- cloud information about nodes in the cluster will no longer be retrieved using local metadata, but instead all API calls to retrieve node information will go through cloud controller manager. This may mean you can restrict access to your cloud API on the kubelets for better security. For larger clusters you may want to consider if cloud controller manager will hit rate limits since it is now responsible for almost all API calls to your cloud from within the cluster.
The cloud controller manager can implement:
- Node controller - responsible for updating kubernetes nodes using cloud APIs and deleting kubernetes nodes that were deleted on your cloud.
- Service controller - responsible for loadbalancers on your cloud against services of type LoadBalancer.
- Route controller - responsible for setting up network routes on your cloud
- any other features you would like to implement if you are running an out-of-tree provider.
If you are using a cloud that is currently supported in Kubernetes core and would like to adopt cloud controller manager, see the cloud controller manager in kubernetes core.
For cloud controller managers not in Kubernetes core, you can find the respective projects in repositories maintained by cloud vendors or by SIGs.
For providers already in Kubernetes core, you can run the in-tree cloud controller manager as a DaemonSet in your cluster, use the following as a guideline:
# This is an example of how to set up cloud-controller-manager as a Daemonset in your cluster. # It assumes that your masters can run pods and has the role node-role.kubernetes.io/master # Note that this Daemonset will not work straight out of the box for your cloud, this is # meant to be a guideline. --- apiVersion: v1 kind: ServiceAccount metadata: name: cloud-controller-manager namespace: kube-system --- apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1 kind: ClusterRoleBinding metadata: name: system:cloud-controller-manager roleRef: apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io kind: ClusterRole name: cluster-admin subjects: - kind: ServiceAccount name: cloud-controller-manager namespace: kube-system --- apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: DaemonSet metadata: labels: k8s-app: cloud-controller-manager name: cloud-controller-manager namespace: kube-system spec: selector: matchLabels: k8s-app: cloud-controller-manager template: metadata: labels: k8s-app: cloud-controller-manager spec: serviceAccountName: cloud-controller-manager containers: - name: cloud-controller-manager # for in-tree providers we use registry.k8s.io/cloud-controller-manager # this can be replaced with any other image for out-of-tree providers image: registry.k8s.io/cloud-controller-manager:v1.8.0 command: - /usr/local/bin/cloud-controller-manager - --cloud-provider=[YOUR_CLOUD_PROVIDER] # Add your own cloud provider here! - --leader-elect=true - --use-service-account-credentials # these flags will vary for every cloud provider - --allocate-node-cidrs=true - --configure-cloud-routes=true - --cluster-cidr=172.17.0.0/16 tolerations: # this is required so CCM can bootstrap itself - key: node.cloudprovider.kubernetes.io/uninitialized value: "true" effect: NoSchedule # these tolerations are to have the daemonset runnable on control plane nodes # remove them if your control plane nodes should not run pods - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/control-plane operator: Exists effect: NoSchedule - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master operator: Exists effect: NoSchedule # this is to restrict CCM to only run on master nodes # the node selector may vary depending on your cluster setup nodeSelector: node-role.kubernetes.io/master: ""
Running cloud controller manager comes with a few possible limitations. Although these limitations are being addressed in upcoming releases, it's important that you are aware of these limitations for production workloads.
Support for Volumes
Cloud controller manager does not implement any of the volume controllers found
kube-controller-manager as the volume integrations also require coordination
with kubelets. As we evolve CSI (container storage interface) and add stronger
support for flex volume plugins, necessary support will be added to cloud
controller manager so that clouds can fully integrate with volumes. Learn more
about out-of-tree CSI volume plugins here.
The cloud-controller-manager queries your cloud provider's APIs to retrieve information for all nodes. For very large clusters, consider possible bottlenecks such as resource requirements and API rate limiting.
Chicken and Egg
The goal of the cloud controller manager project is to decouple development of cloud features from the core Kubernetes project. Unfortunately, many aspects of the Kubernetes project has assumptions that cloud provider features are tightly integrated into the project. As a result, adopting this new architecture can create several situations where a request is being made for information from a cloud provider, but the cloud controller manager may not be able to return that information without the original request being complete.
A good example of this is the TLS bootstrapping feature in the Kubelet. TLS bootstrapping assumes that the Kubelet has the ability to ask the cloud provider (or a local metadata service) for all its address types (private, public, etc) but cloud controller manager cannot set a node's address types without being initialized in the first place which requires that the kubelet has TLS certificates to communicate with the apiserver.
As this initiative evolves, changes will be made to address these issues in upcoming releases.
To build and develop your own cloud controller manager, read Developing Cloud Controller Manager.