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Step-by-step instructions for performing operations with Kubernetes.

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Inject Information into Pods Using a PodPreset

You can use a podpreset object to inject certain information into pods at creation time. This information can include secrets, volumes, volume mounts, and environment variables.

See PodPreset proposal for more information.

What is a Pod Preset?

A Pod Preset is an API resource that you can use to inject additional runtime requirements into a Pod at creation time. You use label selectors to specify the Pods to which a given Pod Preset applies. Check out more information on label selectors.

Using a Pod Preset allows pod template authors to not have to explicitly set information for every pod. This way, authors of pod templates consuming a specific service do not need to know all the details about that service.

Admission Control

Admission control is how Kubernetes applies Pod Presets to incoming pod creation requests. When a pod creation request occurs, the system does the following:

  1. Retrieve all PodPresets available for use.
  2. Match the label selector of the PodPreset to the pod being created.
  3. Attempt to merge the various defined resources for the PodPreset into the Pod being created.
  4. On error, throw an event documenting the merge error on the pod, and create the pod without any injected resources from the PodPreset.

Behavior

When a PodPreset is applied to one or more Pods, Kubernetes modifies the pod spec. For changes to Env, EnvFrom, and VolumeMounts, Kubernetes modifies the container spec for all containers in the Pod; for changes to Volume, Kubernetes modifies the Pod Spec.

Kubernetes annotates the resulting modified pod spec to show that it was modified by a PodPreset. The annotation is of the form podpreset.admission.kubernetes.io/podpreset-<pod-preset name>": "<resource version>".

Enable Pod Preset

In order to use Pod Presets in your cluster you must ensure the following

  1. You have enabled the api type settings.k8s.io/v1alpha1/podpreset
  2. You have enabled the admission controller PodPreset
  3. You have defined your pod presets

Disable Pod Preset for a pod

There may be instances where you wish for a pod to not be altered by any pod preset mutations. For these events, one can add an annotation in the pod spec of the form: podpreset.admission.kubernetes.io/exclude: "true".

Create a Pod Preset

Simple Pod Spec Example

This is a simple example to show how a Pod spec is modified by the Pod Preset.

User submitted pod spec:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: website
  labels:
    app: website
    role: frontend
spec:
  containers:
    - name: website
      image: ecorp/website
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80

Example Pod Preset:

kind: PodPreset
apiVersion: settings.k8s.io/v1alpha1
metadata:
  name: allow-database
  namespace: myns
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      role: frontend
  env:
    - name: DB_PORT
      value: "6379"
  volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /cache
      name: cache-volume
  volumes:
    - name: cache-volume
      emptyDir: {}

Pod spec after admission controller:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: website
  labels:
    app: website
    role: frontend
  annotations:
    podpreset.admission.kubernetes.io/podpreset-allow-database: "resource version"
spec:
  containers:
    - name: website
      image: ecorp/website
      volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: /cache
          name: cache-volume
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80
      env:
        - name: DB_PORT
          value: "6379"
  volumes:
    - name: cache-volume
      emptyDir: {}

Pod Spec with ConfigMap Example

This is an example to show how a Pod spec is modified by the Pod Preset that defines a ConfigMap for Environment Variables.

User submitted pod spec:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: website
  labels:
    app: website
    role: frontend
spec:
  containers:
    - name: website
      image: ecorp/website
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80

User submitted ConfigMap:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: etcd-env-config
data:
  number_of_members: "1"
  initial_cluster_state: new
  initial_cluster_token: DUMMY_ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN
  discovery_token: DUMMY_ETCD_DISCOVERY_TOKEN
  discovery_url: http://etcd_discovery:2379
  etcdctl_peers: http://etcd:2379
  duplicate_key: FROM_CONFIG_MAP
  REPLACE_ME: "a value"

Example Pod Preset:

kind: PodPreset
apiVersion: settings.k8s.io/v1alpha1
metadata:
  name: allow-database
  namespace: myns
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      role: frontend
  env:
    - name: DB_PORT
      value: 6379
    - name: duplicate_key
      value: FROM_ENV
    - name: expansion
      value: $(REPLACE_ME)
  envFrom:
    - configMapRef:
        name: etcd-env-config
  volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /cache
      name: cache-volume
    - mountPath: /etc/app/config.json
      readOnly: true
      name: secret-volume
  volumes:
    - name: cache-volume
      emptyDir: {}
    - name: secret-volume
      secret:
         secretName: config-details

Pod spec after admission controller:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: website
  labels:
    app: website
    role: frontend
  annotations:
    podpreset.admission.kubernetes.io/podpreset-allow-database: "resource version"
spec:
  containers:
    - name: website
      image: ecorp/website
      volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: /cache
          name: cache-volume
        - mountPath: /etc/app/config.json
          readOnly: true
          name: secret-volume
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80
      env:
        - name: DB_PORT
          value: "6379"
        - name: duplicate_key
          value: FROM_ENV
        - name: expansion
          value: $(REPLACE_ME)
      envFrom:
        - configMapRef:
          name: etcd-env-config
  volumes:
    - name: cache-volume
      emptyDir: {}
    - name: secret-volume
      secret:
         secretName: config-details

ReplicaSet with Pod Spec Example

The following example shows that only the pod spec is modified by the Pod Preset.

User submitted ReplicaSet:

apiVersion: settings.k8s.io/v1alpha1
kind: ReplicaSet
metadata:
  name: frontend
spec:
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      tier: frontend
    matchExpressions:
      - {key: tier, operator: In, values: [frontend]}
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: guestbook
        tier: frontend
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: php-redis
        image: gcr.io/google_samples/gb-frontend:v3
        resources:
          requests:
            cpu: 100m
            memory: 100Mi
        env:
          - name: GET_HOSTS_FROM
            value: dns
        ports:
          - containerPort: 80

Example Pod Preset:

kind: PodPreset
apiVersion: settings.k8s.io/v1alpha1
metadata:
  name: allow-database
  namespace: myns
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      tier: frontend
  env:
    - name: DB_PORT
      value: "6379"
  volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /cache
      name: cache-volume
  volumes:
    - name: cache-volume
      emptyDir: {}

Pod spec after admission controller:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  labels:
    app: guestbook
    tier: frontend
  annotations:
    podpreset.admission.kubernetes.io/podpreset-allow-database: "resource version"
spec:
  containers:
  - name: php-redis
    image: gcr.io/google_samples/gb-frontend:v3
    resources:
      requests:
        cpu: 100m
        memory: 100Mi
    volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /cache
      name: cache-volume
    env:
    - name: GET_HOSTS_FROM
      value: dns
    - name: DB_PORT
      value: "6379"
    ports:
    - containerPort: 80
  volumes:
  - name: cache-volume
    emptyDir: {}

Multiple PodPreset Example

This is an example to show how a Pod spec is modified by multiple Pod Injection Policies.

User submitted pod spec:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: website
  labels:
    app: website
    role: frontend
spec:
  containers:
    - name: website
      image: ecorp/website
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80

Example Pod Preset:

kind: PodPreset
apiVersion: settings.k8s.io/v1alpha1
metadata:
  name: allow-database
  namespace: myns
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      role: frontend
  env:
    - name: DB_PORT
      value: "6379"
  volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /cache
      name: cache-volume
  volumes:
    - name: cache-volume
      emptyDir: {}

Another Pod Preset:

kind: PodPreset
apiVersion: settings.k8s.io/v1alpha1
metadata:
  name: proxy
  namespace: myns
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      role: frontend
  volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /etc/proxy/configs
      name: proxy-volume
  volumes:
    - name: proxy-volume
      emptyDir: {}

Pod spec after admission controller:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: website
  labels:
    app: website
    role: frontend
  annotations:
    podpreset.admission.kubernetes.io/podpreset-allow-database: "resource version"
    podpreset.admission.kubernetes.io/podpreset-proxy: "resource version"
spec:
  containers:
    - name: website
      image: ecorp/website
      volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: /cache
          name: cache-volume
        - mountPath: /etc/proxy/configs
          name: proxy-volume
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80
      env:
        - name: DB_PORT
          value: "6379"
  volumes:
    - name: cache-volume
      emptyDir: {}
    - name: proxy-volume
      emptyDir: {}

Conflict Example

This is an example to show how a Pod spec is not modified by the Pod Preset when there is a conflict.

User submitted pod spec:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: website
  labels:
    app: website
    role: frontend
spec:
  containers:
    - name: website
      image: ecorp/website
      volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: /cache
          name: cache-volume
      ports:
  volumes:
    - name: cache-volume
      emptyDir: {}
        - containerPort: 80

Example Pod Preset:

kind: PodPreset
apiVersion: settings.k8s.io/v1alpha1
metadata:
  name: allow-database
  namespace: myns
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      role: frontend
  env:
    - name: DB_PORT
      value: "6379"
  volumeMounts:
    - mountPath: /cache
      name: other-volume
  volumes:
    - name: other-volume
      emptyDir: {}

Pod spec after admission controller will not change because of the conflict:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: website
  labels:
    app: website
    role: frontend
spec:
  containers:
    - name: website
      image: ecorp/website
      volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: /cache
          name: cache-volume
      ports:
        - containerPort: 80
  volumes:
    - name: cache-volume
      emptyDir: {}

If we run kubectl describe... we can see the event:

$ kubectl describe ...
....
Events:
  FirstSeen             LastSeen            Count   From                    SubobjectPath               Reason      Message
  Tue, 07 Feb 2017 16:56:12 -0700   Tue, 07 Feb 2017 16:56:12 -0700 1   {podpreset.admission.kubernetes.io/podpreset-allow-database }    conflict  Conflict on pod preset. Duplicate mountPath /cache.

Deleting a Pod Preset

Once you don’t need a pod preset anymore, you can delete it with kubectl:

$ kubectl delete podpreset allow-database
podpreset "allow-database" deleted

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