Extend Service IP Ranges

FEATURE STATE: Kubernetes v1.29 [alpha]

This document shares how to extend the existing Service IP range assigned to a cluster.

Before you begin

You need to have a Kubernetes cluster, and the kubectl command-line tool must be configured to communicate with your cluster. It is recommended to run this tutorial on a cluster with at least two nodes that are not acting as control plane hosts. If you do not already have a cluster, you can create one by using minikube or you can use one of these Kubernetes playgrounds:

Your Kubernetes server must be version v1.29. To check the version, enter kubectl version.


Kubernetes clusters with kube-apiservers that have enabled the MultiCIDRServiceAllocator feature gate and the networking.k8s.io/v1alpha1 API, will create a new ServiceCIDR object that takes the well-known name kubernetes, and that uses an IP address range based on the value of the --service-cluster-ip-range command line argument to kube-apiserver.

kubectl get servicecidr
NAME         CIDRS          AGE
kubernetes   17d

The well-known kubernetes Service, that exposes the kube-apiserver endpoint to the Pods, calculates the first IP address from the default ServiceCIDR range and uses that IP address as its cluster IP address.

kubectl get service kubernetes
kubernetes   ClusterIP    <none>        443/TCP   17d

The default Service, in this case, uses the ClusterIP, that has the corresponding IPAddress object.

kubectl get ipaddress
NAME        PARENTREF   services/default/kubernetes

The ServiceCIDRs are protected with finalizers, to avoid leaving Service ClusterIPs orphans; the finalizer is only removed if there is another subnet that contains the existing IPAddresses or there are no IPAddresses belonging to the subnet.

Extend the number of available IPs for Services

There are cases that users will need to increase the number addresses available to Services, previously, increasing the Service range was a disruptive operation that could also cause data loss. With this new feature users only need to add a new ServiceCIDR to increase the number of available addresses.

Adding a new ServiceCIDR

On a cluster with a range for Services, there is only 2^(32-28) - 2 = 14 IP addresses available. The kubernetes.default Service is always created; for this example, that leaves you with only 13 possible Services.

for i in $(seq 1 13); do kubectl create service clusterip "test-$i" --tcp 80 -o json | jq -r .spec.clusterIP; done
error: failed to create ClusterIP service: Internal error occurred: failed to allocate a serviceIP: range is full

You can increase the number of IP addresses available for Services, by creating a new ServiceCIDR that extends or adds new IP address ranges.

cat <EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1alpha1
kind: ServiceCIDR
  name: newcidr1
servicecidr.networking.k8s.io/newcidr1 created

and this will allow you to create new Services with ClusterIPs that will be picked from this new range.

for i in $(seq 13 16); do kubectl create service clusterip "test-$i" --tcp 80 -o json | jq -r .spec.clusterIP; done

Deleting a ServiceCIDR

You cannot delete a ServiceCIDR if there are IPAddresses that depend on the ServiceCIDR.

kubectl delete servicecidr newcidr1
servicecidr.networking.k8s.io "newcidr1" deleted

Kubernetes uses a finalizer on the ServiceCIDR to track this dependent relationship.

kubectl get servicecidr newcidr1 -o yaml
apiVersion: networking.k8s.io/v1alpha1
kind: ServiceCIDR
  creationTimestamp: "2023-10-12T15:11:07Z"
  deletionGracePeriodSeconds: 0
  deletionTimestamp: "2023-10-12T15:12:45Z"
  - networking.k8s.io/service-cidr-finalizer
  name: newcidr1
  resourceVersion: "1133"
  uid: 5ffd8afe-c78f-4e60-ae76-cec448a8af40
  - lastTransitionTime: "2023-10-12T15:12:45Z"
    message: There are still IPAddresses referencing the ServiceCIDR, please remove
      them or create a new ServiceCIDR
    reason: OrphanIPAddress
    status: "False"
    type: Ready

By removing the Services containing the IP addresses that are blocking the deletion of the ServiceCIDR

for i in $(seq 13 16); do kubectl delete service "test-$i" ; done
service "test-13" deleted
service "test-14" deleted
service "test-15" deleted
service "test-16" deleted

the control plane notices the removal. The control plane then removes its finalizer, so that the ServiceCIDR that was pending deletion will actually be removed.

kubectl get servicecidr newcidr1
Error from server (NotFound): servicecidrs.networking.k8s.io "newcidr1" not found
Last modified November 25, 2023 at 5:25 PM PST: KEP-1880 Multiple ServiceCIDR (dff94b84bc)