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Validate IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack

This document shares how to validate IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack enabled Kubernetes clusters.

Before you begin

  • Kubernetes 1.16 or later
  • Provider support for dual-stack networking (Cloud provider or otherwise must be able to provide Kubernetes nodes with routable IPv4/IPv6 network interfaces)
  • Kubenet network plugin
  • Kube-proxy running in mode IPVS
  • Dual-stack enabled cluster

Validate addressing

Validate node addressing

Each dual-stack Node should have a single IPv4 block and a single IPv6 block allocated. Validate that IPv4/IPv6 Pod address ranges are configured by running the following command. Replace the sample node name with a valid dual-stack Node from your cluster. In this example, the Node’s name is k8s-linuxpool1-34450317-0:

kubectl get nodes k8s-linuxpool1-34450317-0 -o go-template --template='{{range .spec.podCIDRs}}{{printf "%s\n" .}}{{end}}'
10.244.1.0/24
a00:100::/24

There should be one IPv4 block and one IPv6 block allocated.

Validate that the node has an IPv4 and IPv6 interface detected (replace node name with a valid node from the cluster. In this example the node name is k8s-linuxpool1-34450317-0):

kubectl get nodes k8s-linuxpool1-34450317-0 -o go-template --template='{{range .status.addresses}}{{printf "%s: %s \n" .type .address}}{{end}}'
Hostname: k8s-linuxpool1-34450317-0
InternalIP: 10.240.0.5
InternalIP: 2001:1234:5678:9abc::5

Validate Pod addressing

Validate that a Pod has an IPv4 and IPv6 address assigned. (replace the Pod name with a valid Pod in your cluster. In this example the Pod name is pod01)

kubectl get pods pod01 -o go-template --template='{{range .status.podIPs}}{{printf "%s \n" .ip}}{{end}}'
10.244.1.4
a00:100::4

You can also validate Pod IPs using the Downward API via the status.podIPs fieldPath. The following snippet demonstrates how you can expose the Pod IPs via an environment variable called MY_POD_IPS within a container.

        env:
        - name: MY_POD_IPS
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: status.podIPs

The following command prints the value of the MY_POD_IPS environment variable from within a container. The value is a comma separated list that corresponds to the Pod’s IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

kubectl exec -it pod01 -- set | grep MY_POD_IPS
MY_POD_IPS=10.244.1.4,a00:100::4

The Pod’s IP addresses will also be written to /etc/hosts within a container. The following command executes a cat on /etc/hosts on a dual stack Pod. From the output you can verify both the IPv4 and IPv6 IP address for the Pod.

kubectl exec -it pod01 -- cat /etc/hosts
# Kubernetes-managed hosts file.
127.0.0.1    localhost
::1    localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
fe00::0    ip6-localnet
fe00::0    ip6-mcastprefix
fe00::1    ip6-allnodes
fe00::2    ip6-allrouters
10.244.1.4    pod01
a00:100::4    pod01

Validate Services

Create the following Service without the ipFamily field set. When this field is not set, the Service gets an IP from the first configured range via --service-cluster-ip-range flag on the kube-controller-manager.

service/networking/dual-stack-default-svc.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: my-service
spec:
  selector:
    app: MyApp
  ports:
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 80
      targetPort: 9376

By viewing the YAML for the Service you can observe that the Service has the ipFamily field has set to reflect the address family of the first configured range set via --service-cluster-ip-range flag on kube-controller-manager.

kubectl get svc my-service -o yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: "2019-09-03T20:45:13Z"
  labels:
    app: MyApp
  name: my-service
  namespace: default
  resourceVersion: "485836"
  selfLink: /api/v1/namespaces/default/services/my-service
  uid: b6fa83ef-fe7e-47a3-96a1-ac212fa5b030
spec:
  clusterIP: 10.0.29.179
  ipFamily: IPv4
  ports:
  - port: 80
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: 9376
  selector:
    app: MyApp
  sessionAffinity: None
  type: ClusterIP
status:
  loadBalancer: {}

Create the following Service with the ipFamily field set to IPv6.

service/networking/dual-stack-ipv6-svc.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: my-service
spec:
  ipFamily: IPv6
  selector:
    app: MyApp
  ports:
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 80
      targetPort: 9376

Validate that the Service gets a cluster IP address from the IPv6 address block. You may then validate access to the service via the IP and port.

 kubectl get svc -l app=MyApp
NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)   AGE
my-service   ClusterIP   fe80:20d::d06b   <none>        80/TCP    9s

Create a dual-stack load balanced Service

If the cloud provider supports the provisioning of IPv6 enabled external load balancer, create the following Service with both the ipFamily field set to IPv6 and the type field set to LoadBalancer

service/networking/dual-stack-ipv6-lb-svc.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: my-service
  labels:
    app: MyApp
spec:
  ipFamily: IPv6
  type: LoadBalancer
  selector:
    app: MyApp
  ports:
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 80
      targetPort: 9376

Validate that the Service receives a CLUSTER-IP address from the IPv6 address block along with an EXTERNAL-IP. You may then validate access to the service via the IP and port.

 kubectl get svc -l app=MyApp
NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP                     PORT(S)        AGE
my-service   ClusterIP   fe80:20d::d06b   2001:db8:f100:4002::9d37:c0d7   80:31868/TCP   30s

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