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使用 ConfigMap 配置 Pod

ConfigMap 允许您将配置文件与镜像文件分离,以使容器化的应用程序具有可移植性。该页面提供了一系列使用示例,这些示例演示了如何使用存储在 ConfigMap 中的数据创建 ConfigMap 和配置 Pod。

准备开始

你必须拥有一个 Kubernetes 的集群,同时你的 Kubernetes 集群必须带有 kubectl 命令行工具。 如果你还没有集群,你可以通过 Minikube 构建一 个你自己的集群,或者你可以使用下面任意一个 Kubernetes 工具构建:

要获知版本信息,请输入 kubectl version.

创建 ConfigMap

您可以在 kustomization.yaml 中使用 kubectl create configmap 或 ConfigMap 生成器来创建ConfigMap。注意,从 1.14 版本开始, kubectl 开始支持 kustomization.yaml

使用 kubectl 创建 ConfigMap

目录, 文件, 或者文字值中使用 kubectl create configmap 命令创建configmap:

kubectl create configmap <map-name> <data-source>

其中, <map-name> 是要分配给 ConfigMap 的名称,<data-source> 是要从中提取数据的目录,文件或者文字值。

数据源对应于 ConfigMap 中的 key-value (键值对)

  • key = 您在命令行上提供的文件名或者密钥
  • value = 您在命令行上提供的文件内容或者文字值

您可以使用kubectl describe或者 kubectl get检索有关 ConfigMap 的信息。

根据目录创建 ConfigMap

你可以使用 kubectl create configmap 从同一目录中的多个文件创建 ConfigMap。

例如:

Create the local directory

Download the sample files into configure-pod-container/configmap/ directory

Create the configmap

# 创建本地目录
mkdir -p configure-pod-container/configmap/

# 将样本文件下载到 `configure-pod-container/configmap/` 目录
wget https://kubernetes.io/examples/configmap/game.properties -O configure-pod-container/configmap/game.properties
wget https://kubernetes.io/examples/configmap/ui.properties -O configure-pod-container/configmap/ui.properties

# 创建 configmap
kubectl create c game-config --from-file=configure-pod-container/configmap/

合并 configure-pod-container/configmap/ 目录的内容

game.properties
ui.properties

进入以下 ConfigMap 中:

kubectl describe configmaps game-config

输出类似以下内容:

Name:           game-config
Namespace:      default
Labels:         <none>
Annotations:    <none>

Data
====
game.properties:        158 bytes
ui.properties:          83 bytes

configure-pod-container/configmap/ 目录中的 game.propertiesui.properties 文件在 ConfigMap 的 data 部分中表示。

kubectl get configmaps game-config -o yaml

输出类似以下内容:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: 2016-02-18T18:52:05Z
  name: game-config
  namespace: default
  resourceVersion: "516"
  selfLink: /api/v1/namespaces/default/configmaps/game-config
  uid: b4952dc3-d670-11e5-8cd0-68f728db1985
data:
  game.properties: |
    enemies=aliens
    lives=3
    enemies.cheat=true
    enemies.cheat.level=noGoodRotten
    secret.code.passphrase=UUDDLRLRBABAS
    secret.code.allowed=true
    secret.code.lives=30
  ui.properties: |
    color.good=purple
    color.bad=yellow
    allow.textmode=true
    how.nice.to.look=fairlyNice

根据文件创建 ConfigMap

您可以使用 kubectl create configmap 从单个文件或多个文件创建 ConfigMap。

例如

kubectl create configmap game-config-2 --from-file=configure-pod-container/configmap/game.properties

将产生以下 ConfigMap:

kubectl describe configmaps game-config-2

输出类似以下内容:

Name:           game-config-2
Namespace:      default
Labels:         <none>
Annotations:    <none>

Data
====
game.properties:        158 bytes

您可以传入多个 --from-file 参数,从多个数据源创建 ConfigMap。

kubectl create configmap game-config-2 --from-file=configure-pod-container/configmap/game.properties --from-file=configure-pod-container/configmap/ui.properties

描述上面创建的 game-config-2 configmap

kubectl describe configmaps game-config-2

输出类似以下内容:

Name:           game-config-2
Namespace:      default
Labels:         <none>
Annotations:    <none>

Data
====
game.properties:        158 bytes
ui.properties:          83 bytes

使用 --from-env-file 选项从环境文件创建 ConfigMap,例如:

# 环境文件包含环境变量列表。
# 语法规则:
#   env 文件中的每一行必须为 VAR = VAL 格式。
#   以#开头的行(即注释)将被忽略。
#   空行将被忽略。
#   引号没有特殊处理(即它们将成为 ConfigMap 值的一部分)。 

# 将样本文件下载到 `configure-pod-container/configmap/` 目录
wget https://kubernetes.io/examples/configmap/game-env-file.properties -O configure-pod-container/configmap/game-env-file.properties

# env文件 `game-env-file.properties` 如下所示
cat configure-pod-container/configmap/game-env-file.properties
enemies=aliens
lives=3
allowed="true"

# 注释及其上方的空行将被忽略
kubectl create configmap game-config-env-file \
       --from-env-file=configure-pod-container/configmap/game-env-file.properties

将产生以下 ConfigMap:

kubectl get configmap game-config-env-file -o yaml

输出类似以下内容:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: 2017-12-27T18:36:28Z
  name: game-config-env-file
  namespace: default
  resourceVersion: "809965"
  selfLink: /api/v1/namespaces/default/configmaps/game-config-env-file
  uid: d9d1ca5b-eb34-11e7-887b-42010a8002b8
data:
  allowed: '"true"'
  enemies: aliens
  lives: "3"

当使用多个 --from-env-file 来从多个数据源创建 ConfigMap 时,仅仅最后一个 env 文件有效:

# 将样本文件下载到 `configure-pod-container/configmap/` 目录
wget https://k8s.io/examples/configmap/ui-env-file.properties -O configure-pod-container/configmap/ui-env-file.properties

# 创建 configmap
kubectl create configmap config-multi-env-files \
        --from-env-file=configure-pod-container/configmap/game-env-file.properties \
        --from-env-file=configure-pod-container/configmap/ui-env-file.properties

将产生以下 ConfigMap:

kubectl get configmap config-multi-env-files -o yaml

输出类似以下内容:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: 2017-12-27T18:38:34Z
  name: config-multi-env-files
  namespace: default
  resourceVersion: "810136"
  selfLink: /api/v1/namespaces/default/configmaps/config-multi-env-files
  uid: 252c4572-eb35-11e7-887b-42010a8002b8
data:
  color: purple
  how: fairlyNice
  textmode: "true"

定义从文件创建 ConfigMa p时要使用的密钥

您可以在使用 --from-file 参数时,在 ConfigMap 的 data 部分中定义除文件名以外的其他键:

kubectl create configmap game-config-3 --from-file=<my-key-name>=<path-to-file>

<my-key-name> 是您要在 ConfigMap 中使用的密钥, <path-to-file> 是您想要键表示数据源文件的位置。

例如:

kubectl create configmap game-config-3 --from-file=game-special-key=configure-pod-container/configmap/game.properties

将产生以下 ConfigMap:

kubectl get configmaps game-config-3 -o yaml

输出类似以下内容:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: 2016-02-18T18:54:22Z
  name: game-config-3
  namespace: default
  resourceVersion: "530"
  selfLink: /api/v1/namespaces/default/configmaps/game-config-3
  uid: 05f8da22-d671-11e5-8cd0-68f728db1985
data:
  game-special-key: |
    enemies=aliens
    lives=3
    enemies.cheat=true
    enemies.cheat.level=noGoodRotten
    secret.code.passphrase=UUDDLRLRBABAS
    secret.code.allowed=true
    secret.code.lives=30

根据文字值创建 ConfigMap

您可以将 kubectl create configmap--from-literal 参数一起使用,从命令行定义文字值:

kubectl create configmap special-config --from-literal=special.how=very --from-literal=special.type=charm

您可以传入多个键值对。命令行中提供的每对在 ConfigMap 的 data 部分中均表示为单独的条目。

kubectl get configmaps special-config -o yaml

输出类似以下内容:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: 2016-02-18T19:14:38Z
  name: special-config
  namespace: default
  resourceVersion: "651"
  selfLink: /api/v1/namespaces/default/configmaps/special-config
  uid: dadce046-d673-11e5-8cd0-68f728db1985
data:
  special.how: very
  special.type: charm

根据生成器创建 ConfigMap

自 1.14 开始, kubectl 开始支持 kustomization.yaml。 您还可以从生成器创建 ConfigMap,然后将其应用于 Apiserver 创建对象。生成器应在目录内的 kustomization.yaml 中指定。

根据文件生成 ConfigMap

例如,要从 configure-pod-container/configmap/kubectl/game.properties 文件生成一个 ConfigMap

# 使用 ConfigMapGenerator 创建 kustomization.yaml 文件
cat <<EOF >./kustomization.yaml
configMapGenerator:
- name: game-config-4
  files:
  - configure-pod-container/configmap/kubectl/game.properties
EOF

使用 kustomization 目录创建 ConfigMap 对象

kubectl apply -k .
configmap/game-config-4-m9dm2f92bt created

您可以检查 ConfigMap 是这样创建的:

kubectl get configmap
NAME                       DATA   AGE
game-config-4-m9dm2f92bt   1      37s


kubectl describe configmaps/game-config-4-m9dm2f92bt
Name:         game-config-4-m9dm2f92bt
Namespace:    default
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  kubectl.kubernetes.io/last-applied-configuration:
                {"apiVersion":"v1","data":{"game.properties":"enemies=aliens\nlives=3\nenemies.cheat=true\nenemies.cheat.level=noGoodRotten\nsecret.code.p...

Data
====
game.properties:
----
enemies=aliens
lives=3
enemies.cheat=true
enemies.cheat.level=noGoodRotten
secret.code.passphrase=UUDDLRLRBABAS
secret.code.allowed=true
secret.code.lives=30
Events:  <none>

请注意,生成的 ConfigMap 名称具有通过对内容进行散列而附加的后缀,这样可以确保每次修改内容时都会生成新的 ConfigMap。

定义从文件生成 ConfigMap 时要使用的密钥

您可以定义一个非文件名的键,在 ConfigMap 生成器中使用。例如,使用 game-special-keyconfigure-pod-container / configmap / kubectl / game.properties 文件生成 ConfigMap。

# 使用 ConfigMapGenerator 创建 kustomization.yaml 文件
cat <<EOF >./kustomization.yaml
configMapGenerator:
- name: game-config-5
  files:
  - game-special-key=configure-pod-container/configmap/kubectl/game.properties
EOF

使用 Kustomization 目录创建 ConfigMap 对象。

kubectl apply -k .
configmap/game-config-5-m67dt67794 created

从文字值生成 ConfigMap

要从文字 special.type=charmspecial.how=very 生成 ConfigMap,可以在 kusotmization.yaml 中将 ConfigMap 生成器指定。 <!– ```shell

Create a kustomization.yaml file with ConfigMapGenerator

cat <./kustomization.yaml configMapGenerator: - name: special-config-2 literals: - special.how=very - special.type=charm EOF

shell

使用 ConfigMapGenerator 创建 kustomization.yaml 文件

cat <./kustomization.yaml configMapGenerator: - name: special-config-2 literals: - special.how=very - special.type=charm EOF

<!-- Apply the kustomization directory to create the ConfigMap object. -->
使用 Kustomization 目录创建 ConfigMap 对象。

shell kubectl apply -k . configmap/special-config-2-c92b5mmcf2 created


<!-- ## Define container environment variables using ConfigMap data -->
## 使用 ConfigMap 数据定义容器环境变量

<!-- ### Define a container environment variable with data from a single ConfigMap -->
### 使用单个 ConfigMap 中的数据定义容器环境变量

<!-- 1.  Define an environment variable as a key-value pair in a ConfigMap: -->
1.  在 ConfigMap 中将环境变量定义为键值对:

    ```shell
    kubectl create configmap special-config --from-literal=special.how=very
    ```

<!-- 2.  Assign the `special.how` value defined in the ConfigMap to the `SPECIAL_LEVEL_KEY` environment variable in the Pod specification. -->
2. 将 ConfigMap 中定义的 `special.how` 值分配给 Pod 规范中的 `SPECIAL_LEVEL_KEY` 环境变量。

   

 













<table class="includecode" id="pods-pod-single-configmap-env-variable-yaml">
    <thead>
        <tr>
            <th>
                <a href="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/website/master/content/zh/examples/pods/pod-single-configmap-env-variable.yaml" download="pods/pod-single-configmap-env-variable.yaml">
                    <code>pods/pod-single-configmap-env-variable.yaml</code>
                </a>
                <img src="/images/copycode.svg" style="max-height:24px" onclick="copyCode('pods-pod-single-configmap-env-variable-yaml')" title="Copy pods/pod-single-configmap-env-variable.yaml to clipboard">
            </th>
        </tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody>
        <tr>
            <td><div class="highlight"><pre style="background-color:#f8f8f8;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4"><code class="language-yaml" data-lang="yaml">apiVersion:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>v1<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>kind:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>Pod<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>metadata:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>dapi-test-pod<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>spec:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>containers:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">    </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>test-container<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>image:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>k8s.gcr.io/busybox<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>command:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>[<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;/bin/sh&#34;</span>,<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;-c&#34;</span>,<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;env&#34;</span><span style="color:#bbb"> </span>]<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>env:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span><span style="color:#080;font-style:italic"># Define the environment variable</span><span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>SPECIAL_LEVEL_KEY<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">          </span>valueFrom:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">            </span>configMapKeyRef:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">              </span><span style="color:#080;font-style:italic"># The ConfigMap containing the value you want to assign to SPECIAL_LEVEL_KEY</span><span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">              </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>special-config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">              </span><span style="color:#080;font-style:italic"># Specify the key associated with the value</span><span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">              </span>key:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>special.how<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>restartPolicy:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>Never<span style="color:#bbb">
</span></code></pre></div>  </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>



   <!-- Create the Pod: -->
   创建 Pod:

shell kubectl create -f https://kubernetes.io/examples/pods/pod-single-configmap-env-variable.yaml


   <!-- Now, the Pod's output includes environment variable `SPECIAL_LEVEL_KEY=very`. -->
   现在,Pod 的输出包含环境变量 `SPECIAL_LEVEL_KEY=very`。

<!-- ### Define container environment variables with data from multiple ConfigMaps -->
### 使用来自多个 ConfigMap 的数据定义容器环境变量

 <!-- * As with the previous example, create the ConfigMaps first. -->
 * 与前面的示例一样,首先创建 ConfigMap。

   

 













<table class="includecode" id="configmap-configmaps-yaml">
    <thead>
        <tr>
            <th>
                <a href="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/website/master/content/zh/examples/configmap/configmaps.yaml" download="configmap/configmaps.yaml">
                    <code>configmap/configmaps.yaml</code>
                </a>
                <img src="/images/copycode.svg" style="max-height:24px" onclick="copyCode('configmap-configmaps-yaml')" title="Copy configmap/configmaps.yaml to clipboard">
            </th>
        </tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody>
        <tr>
            <td><div class="highlight"><pre style="background-color:#f8f8f8;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4"><code class="language-yaml" data-lang="yaml">apiVersion:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>v1<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>kind:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>ConfigMap<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>metadata:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>special-config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>namespace:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>default<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>data:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>special.how:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>very<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>---<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>apiVersion:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>v1<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>kind:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>ConfigMap<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>metadata:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>env-config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>namespace:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>default<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>data:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>log_level:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>INFO<span style="color:#bbb">
</span></code></pre></div>  </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>



   <!-- Create the ConfigMap: -->
   创建 ConfigMap:

shell kubectl create -f https://kubernetes.io/examples/configmap/configmaps.yaml


<!-- * Define the environment variables in the Pod specification. -->
* 在 Pod 规范中定义环境变量。

  

 













<table class="includecode" id="pods-pod-multiple-configmap-env-variable-yaml">
    <thead>
        <tr>
            <th>
                <a href="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/website/master/content/zh/examples/pods/pod-multiple-configmap-env-variable.yaml" download="pods/pod-multiple-configmap-env-variable.yaml">
                    <code>pods/pod-multiple-configmap-env-variable.yaml</code>
                </a>
                <img src="/images/copycode.svg" style="max-height:24px" onclick="copyCode('pods-pod-multiple-configmap-env-variable-yaml')" title="Copy pods/pod-multiple-configmap-env-variable.yaml to clipboard">
            </th>
        </tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody>
        <tr>
            <td><div class="highlight"><pre style="background-color:#f8f8f8;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4"><code class="language-yaml" data-lang="yaml">apiVersion:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>v1<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>kind:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>Pod<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>metadata:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>dapi-test-pod<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>spec:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>containers:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">    </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>test-container<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>image:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>k8s.gcr.io/busybox<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>command:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>[<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;/bin/sh&#34;</span>,<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;-c&#34;</span>,<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;env&#34;</span><span style="color:#bbb"> </span>]<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>env:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>SPECIAL_LEVEL_KEY<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">          </span>valueFrom:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">            </span>configMapKeyRef:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">              </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>special-config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">              </span>key:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>special.how<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>LOG_LEVEL<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">          </span>valueFrom:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">            </span>configMapKeyRef:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">              </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>env-config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">              </span>key:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>log_level<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>restartPolicy:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>Never<span style="color:#bbb">
</span></code></pre></div>  </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>



  <!-- Create the Pod: -->
  创建 Pod:

shell kubectl create -f https://kubernetes.io/examples/pods/pod-multiple-configmap-env-variable.yaml


  <!-- Now, the Pod's output includes environment variables `SPECIAL_LEVEL_KEY=very` and `LOG_LEVEL=INFO`. -->
  现在,Pod 的输出包含环境变量 `SPECIAL_LEVEL_KEY=very` 和 `LOG_LEVEL=INFO`。

<!-- ## Configure all key-value pairs in a ConfigMap as container environment variables -->
## 将 ConfigMap 中的所有键值对配置为容器环境变量

<blockquote class="note">
  <div><strong>注意:</strong> <!-- This functionality is available in Kubernetes v1.6 and later. -->

<p>Kubernetes v1.6 和更高版本提供了此功能。</div>
</blockquote>

<!-- * Create a ConfigMap containing multiple key-value pairs. -->
* 创建一个包含多个键值对的 ConfigMap。

  

 













<table class="includecode" id="configmap-configmap-multikeys-yaml">
    <thead>
        <tr>
            <th>
                <a href="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/website/master/content/zh/examples/configmap/configmap-multikeys.yaml" download="configmap/configmap-multikeys.yaml">
                    <code>configmap/configmap-multikeys.yaml</code>
                </a>
                <img src="/images/copycode.svg" style="max-height:24px" onclick="copyCode('configmap-configmap-multikeys-yaml')" title="Copy configmap/configmap-multikeys.yaml to clipboard">
            </th>
        </tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody>
        <tr>
            <td><div class="highlight"><pre style="background-color:#f8f8f8;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4"><code class="language-yaml" data-lang="yaml">apiVersion:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>v1<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>kind:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>ConfigMap<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>metadata:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>special-config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>namespace:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>default<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>data:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>SPECIAL_LEVEL:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>very<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>SPECIAL_TYPE:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>charm<span style="color:#bbb">
</span></code></pre></div>  </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>



  <!-- Create the ConfigMap: -->
  创建 ConfigMap:

shell kubectl create -f https://kubernetes.io/examples/configmap/configmap-multikeys.yaml


<!-- * Use `envFrom` to define all of the ConfigMap's data as container environment variables. The key from the ConfigMap becomes the environment variable name in the Pod. -->
* 使用 `envFrom` 将所有 ConfigMap 的数据定义为容器环境变量,ConfigMap 中的键成为 Pod 中的环境变量名称。

 

 













<table class="includecode" id="pods-pod-configmap-envfrom-yaml">
    <thead>
        <tr>
            <th>
                <a href="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/website/master/content/zh/examples/pods/pod-configmap-envFrom.yaml" download="pods/pod-configmap-envFrom.yaml">
                    <code>pods/pod-configmap-envFrom.yaml</code>
                </a>
                <img src="/images/copycode.svg" style="max-height:24px" onclick="copyCode('pods-pod-configmap-envfrom-yaml')" title="Copy pods/pod-configmap-envFrom.yaml to clipboard">
            </th>
        </tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody>
        <tr>
            <td><div class="highlight"><pre style="background-color:#f8f8f8;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4"><code class="language-yaml" data-lang="yaml">apiVersion:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>v1<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>kind:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>Pod<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>metadata:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>dapi-test-pod<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>spec:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>containers:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">    </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>test-container<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>image:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>k8s.gcr.io/busybox<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>command:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>[<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;/bin/sh&#34;</span>,<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;-c&#34;</span>,<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;env&#34;</span><span style="color:#bbb"> </span>]<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>envFrom:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>configMapRef:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">          </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>special-config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>restartPolicy:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>Never<span style="color:#bbb">
</span></code></pre></div>  </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>



 <!-- Create the Pod: -->
创建 Pod:

shell kubectl create -f https://kubernetes.io/examples/pods/pod-configmap-envFrom.yaml


 <!-- Now, the Pod's output includes environment variables `SPECIAL_LEVEL=very` and `SPECIAL_TYPE=charm`. -->
现在,Pod 的输出包含环境变量 `SPECIAL_LEVEL=very` 和 `SPECIAL_TYPE=charm`。


<!-- ## Use ConfigMap-defined environment variables in Pod commands -->
## 在 Pod 命令中使用 ConfigMap 定义的环境变量

<!-- You can use ConfigMap-defined environment variables in the `command` section of the Pod specification using the `$(VAR_NAME)` Kubernetes substitution syntax. -->
您可以使用 `$(VAR_NAME)` Kubernetes 替换语法在 Pod 规范的 `command` 部分中使用 ConfigMap 定义的环境变量。

<!-- For example, the following Pod specification -->
例如,以下 Pod 规范



 













<table class="includecode" id="pods-pod-configmap-env-var-valuefrom-yaml">
    <thead>
        <tr>
            <th>
                <a href="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/website/master/content/zh/examples/pods/pod-configmap-env-var-valueFrom.yaml" download="pods/pod-configmap-env-var-valueFrom.yaml">
                    <code>pods/pod-configmap-env-var-valueFrom.yaml</code>
                </a>
                <img src="/images/copycode.svg" style="max-height:24px" onclick="copyCode('pods-pod-configmap-env-var-valuefrom-yaml')" title="Copy pods/pod-configmap-env-var-valueFrom.yaml to clipboard">
            </th>
        </tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody>
        <tr>
            <td><div class="highlight"><pre style="background-color:#f8f8f8;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4"><code class="language-yaml" data-lang="yaml">apiVersion:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>v1<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>kind:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>Pod<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>metadata:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>dapi-test-pod<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>spec:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>containers:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">    </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>test-container<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>image:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>k8s.gcr.io/busybox<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>command:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>[<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;/bin/sh&#34;</span>,<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;-c&#34;</span>,<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;echo $(SPECIAL_LEVEL_KEY) $(SPECIAL_TYPE_KEY)&#34;</span><span style="color:#bbb"> </span>]<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>env:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>SPECIAL_LEVEL_KEY<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">          </span>valueFrom:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">            </span>configMapKeyRef:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">              </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>special-config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">              </span>key:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>SPECIAL_LEVEL<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>SPECIAL_TYPE_KEY<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">          </span>valueFrom:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">            </span>configMapKeyRef:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">              </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>special-config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">              </span>key:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>SPECIAL_TYPE<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>restartPolicy:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>Never<span style="color:#bbb">
</span></code></pre></div>  </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>



<!-- created by running -->
通过运行创建

shell kubectl create -f https://kubernetes.io/examples/pods/pod-configmap-env-var-valueFrom.yaml


<!-- produces the following output in the `test-container` container: -->
在 `test-container` 容器中产生以下输出:

shell very charm


<!-- ## Add ConfigMap data to a Volume -->
## 将 ConfigMap 数据添加到一个容器中

<!-- As explained in [Create ConfigMaps from files](#create-configmaps-from-files), when you create a ConfigMap using ``--from-file``, the filename becomes a key stored in the `data` section of the ConfigMap. The file contents become the key's value. -->
如[根据文件创建ConfigMap](#create-configmaps-from-files)中所述,当您使用 ``--from-file`` 创建 ConfigMap 时,文件名成为存储在 ConfigMap 的 `data` 部分中的密钥,文件内容成为密钥的值。

<!-- The examples in this section refer to a ConfigMap named special-config, shown below. -->
本节中的示例引用了一个名为 special-config 的 ConfigMap,如下所示:



 













<table class="includecode" id="configmap-configmap-multikeys-yaml">
    <thead>
        <tr>
            <th>
                <a href="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/website/master/content/zh/examples/configmap/configmap-multikeys.yaml" download="configmap/configmap-multikeys.yaml">
                    <code>configmap/configmap-multikeys.yaml</code>
                </a>
                <img src="/images/copycode.svg" style="max-height:24px" onclick="copyCode('configmap-configmap-multikeys-yaml')" title="Copy configmap/configmap-multikeys.yaml to clipboard">
            </th>
        </tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody>
        <tr>
            <td><div class="highlight"><pre style="background-color:#f8f8f8;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4"><code class="language-yaml" data-lang="yaml">apiVersion:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>v1<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>kind:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>ConfigMap<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>metadata:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>special-config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>namespace:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>default<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>data:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>SPECIAL_LEVEL:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>very<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>SPECIAL_TYPE:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>charm<span style="color:#bbb">
</span></code></pre></div>  </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>



<!-- Create the ConfigMap: -->
创建 ConfigMap:

shell kubectl create -f https://kubernetes.io/examples/configmap/configmap-multikeys.yaml


<!-- ### Populate a Volume with data stored in a ConfigMap -->
### 使用存储在 ConfigMap 中的数据填充容器

<!-- Add the ConfigMap name under the `volumes` section of the Pod specification.
This adds the ConfigMap data to the directory specified as `volumeMounts.mountPath` (in this case, `/etc/config`).
The `command` section references the `special.level` item stored in the ConfigMap. -->
在 Pod 规范的 `volumes` 部分下添加 ConfigMap 名称。
这会将 ConfigMap 数据添加到指定为 `volumeMounts.mountPath` 的目录(在本例中为`/etc/config`)。
`command` 引用存储在 ConfigMap 中的 `special.level`。



 













<table class="includecode" id="pods-pod-configmap-volume-yaml">
    <thead>
        <tr>
            <th>
                <a href="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/website/master/content/zh/examples/pods/pod-configmap-volume.yaml" download="pods/pod-configmap-volume.yaml">
                    <code>pods/pod-configmap-volume.yaml</code>
                </a>
                <img src="/images/copycode.svg" style="max-height:24px" onclick="copyCode('pods-pod-configmap-volume-yaml')" title="Copy pods/pod-configmap-volume.yaml to clipboard">
            </th>
        </tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody>
        <tr>
            <td><div class="highlight"><pre style="background-color:#f8f8f8;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4"><code class="language-yaml" data-lang="yaml">apiVersion:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>v1<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>kind:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>Pod<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>metadata:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>dapi-test-pod<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>spec:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>containers:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">    </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>test-container<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>image:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>k8s.gcr.io/busybox<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>command:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>[<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;/bin/sh&#34;</span>,<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;-c&#34;</span>,<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;ls /etc/config/&#34;</span><span style="color:#bbb"> </span>]<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>volumeMounts:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>config-volume<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span>mountPath:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>/etc/config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>volumes:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">    </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>config-volume<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>configMap:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span><span style="color:#080;font-style:italic"># Provide the name of the ConfigMap containing the files you want</span><span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span><span style="color:#080;font-style:italic"># to add to the container</span><span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>special-config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>restartPolicy:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>Never<span style="color:#bbb">
</span></code></pre></div>  </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>



<!-- Create the Pod: -->
创建Pod:

shell kubectl create -f https://kubernetes.io/examples/pods/pod-configmap-volume.yaml


<!-- When the pod runs, the command `ls /etc/config/` produces the output below: -->
运行命令 `ls /etc/config/` 产生下面的输出:

shell SPECIAL_LEVEL SPECIAL_TYPE


<blockquote class="caution">
  <div><strong>警告:</strong> <!-- If there are some files in the `/etc/config/` directory, they will be deleted. -->

<p>如果在 <code>/etc/config/</code> 目录中有一些文件,它们将被删除。</div>
</blockquote>


<!-- ### Add ConfigMap data to a specific path in the Volume -->
### 将 ConfigMap 数据添加到容器中的特定路径

<!-- Use the `path` field to specify the desired file path for specific ConfigMap items.
In this case, the `SPECIAL_LEVEL` item will be mounted in the `config-volume` volume at `/etc/config/keys`. -->
使用 `path` 字段为特定的 ConfigMap 项目指定所需的文件路径。
在这种情况下, `SPECIAL_LEVEL` 将安装在 `/etc/config/keys` 目录下的 `config-volume` 容器中。



 













<table class="includecode" id="pods-pod-configmap-volume-specific-key-yaml">
    <thead>
        <tr>
            <th>
                <a href="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/website/master/content/zh/examples/pods/pod-configmap-volume-specific-key.yaml" download="pods/pod-configmap-volume-specific-key.yaml">
                    <code>pods/pod-configmap-volume-specific-key.yaml</code>
                </a>
                <img src="/images/copycode.svg" style="max-height:24px" onclick="copyCode('pods-pod-configmap-volume-specific-key-yaml')" title="Copy pods/pod-configmap-volume-specific-key.yaml to clipboard">
            </th>
        </tr>
    </thead>
    <tbody>
        <tr>
            <td><div class="highlight"><pre style="background-color:#f8f8f8;-moz-tab-size:4;-o-tab-size:4;tab-size:4"><code class="language-yaml" data-lang="yaml">apiVersion:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>v1<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>kind:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>Pod<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>metadata:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>dapi-test-pod<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb"></span>spec:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>containers:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">    </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>test-container<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>image:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>k8s.gcr.io/busybox<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>command:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>[<span style="color:#bbb"> </span><span style="color:#b44">&#34;/bin/sh&#34;</span>,<span style="color:#b44">&#34;-c&#34;</span>,<span style="color:#b44">&#34;cat /etc/config/keys&#34;</span><span style="color:#bbb"> </span>]<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>volumeMounts:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>config-volume<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span>mountPath:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>/etc/config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>volumes:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">    </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>config-volume<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">      </span>configMap:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span>name:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>special-config<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span>items:<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">        </span>-<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>key:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>SPECIAL_LEVEL<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">          </span>path:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>keys<span style="color:#bbb">
</span><span style="color:#bbb">  </span>restartPolicy:<span style="color:#bbb"> </span>Never<span style="color:#bbb">
</span></code></pre></div>  </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>



<!-- Create the Pod: -->
创建Pod:

shell kubectl create -f https://kubernetes.io/examples/pods/pod-configmap-volume-specific-key.yaml


<!-- When the pod runs, the command `cat /etc/config/keys` produces the output below: -->
当 pod 运行时,命令 `cat /etc/config/keys` 产生以下输出:

shell very ```

警告:

和以前一样,/etc/config/ 目录中的所有先前文件都将被删除。

项目密钥以指定路径和文件权限

您可以将密钥映射到每个文件的特定路径和特定权限。Secrets 用户指南说明了语法。

挂载的 ConfigMap 将自动更新

更新已经在容器中使用的 ConfigMap 时,最终也会更新映射键。Kubelet 实时检查是否在每个定期同步中都更新已安装的 ConfigMap。它使用其基于本地 ttl 的缓存来获取 ConfigMap 的当前值。结果,从更新 ConfigMap 到将新密钥映射到 Pod 的总延迟可以与 ConfigMap 在 kubelet 中缓存的 kubelet 同步周期 ttl 一样长。

注意:

使用 ConfigMap 作为子路径subPath的容器将不会收到 ConfigMap 更新。

了解 ConfigMap 和 Pod

ConfigMap API 资源将配置数据存储为键值对。数据可以在 Pod 中使用,也可以提供系统组件(如控制器)的配置。ConfigMap 与 Secrets类似,但是提供了一种使用不包含敏感信息的字符串的方法。用户和系统组件都可以在 ConfigMap 中存储配置数据。

注意:

ConfigMap 应该引用属性文件,而不是替换它们。可以将 ConfigMap 表示为类似于 Linux /etc 目录及其内容的东西。例如,如果您从 ConfigMap 创建Kubernetes Volume,则 ConfigMap 中的每个数据项都由该容器中的单个文件表示。

ConfigMap 的 data 字段包含配置数据。如下例所示,它可以很简单 – 就像使用 --from-literal – 定义的单个属性一样,也可以很复杂 – 例如使用 --from-file 定义的配置文件或 JSON blob。

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: 2016-02-18T19:14:38Z
  name: example-config
  namespace: default
data:
  # example of a simple property defined using --from-literal
  example.property.1: hello
  example.property.2: world
  # example of a complex property defined using --from-file
  example.property.file: |-
    property.1=value-1
    property.2=value-2
    property.3=value-3

限制规定

  • 在 Pod 规范中引用它之前,必须先创建一个 ConfigMap(除非将 ConfigMap 标记为”可选”)。如果引用的 ConfigMap 不存在,则 Pod 将不会启动。同样,对 ConfigMap 中不存在的键的引用将阻止容器启动。
  • 如果您使用 envFrom 从 ConfigMap 中定义环境变量,那么将忽略被认为无效的键。可以启动 Pod,但无效名称将记录在事件日志中(InvalidVariableNames)。日志消息列出了每个跳过的键。例如:

    kubectl get events

输出与此类似:

   LASTSEEN FIRSTSEEN COUNT NAME          KIND  SUBOBJECT  TYPE      REASON                            SOURCE                MESSAGE
   0s       0s        1     dapi-test-pod Pod              Warning   InvalidEnvironmentVariableNames   {kubelet, 127.0.0.1}  Keys [1badkey, 2alsobad] from the EnvFrom configMap default/myconfig were skipped since they are considered invalid environment variable names.
  • ConfigMaps reside in a specific 命令空间. A ConfigMap can only be referenced by pods residing in the same namespace. ConfigMap 驻留在特定的命令空间中。ConfigMap 只能由位于相同命令空间中的 Pod 引用。
  • Kubelet 不支持将 ConfigMap 用于未在 API 服务器上找到的 Pod。这包括通过 Kubelet 的 --manifest-url 参数,--config 参数或者 Kubelet REST API 创建的容器。

注意:

这些不是创建 pods 的常用方法。

接下来

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