Glosarium

Glosarium ini dimaksudkan sebagai daftar terminologi Kubernetes yang komprehensif dan terstandardisasi. Glosarium ini mencakup istilah-istilah teknis yang spesifik digunakan di Kubernetes, serta beberapa istilah umum untuk membantu memberikan konteks.

Filter istilah sesuai dengan penandanya

The inner components of Kubernetes.
Related to Kubernetes open-source development.
A resource type that Kubernetes supports by default.
Supported customizations of Kubernetes.
Relevant for a first-time user of Kubernetes.
How Kubernetes components talk to each other (and to programs outside the cluster).
Starting and maintaining Kubernetes.
Keeping Kubernetes applications safe and secure.
How Kubernetes applications handle persistent data.
Software that makes Kubernetes easier or better to use.
Represents a common type of Kubernetes user.
Applications running on Kubernetes.
Architecture Community Core Object Extension Fundamental Networking Operation Security Storage Tool User Type Workload Pilih semua Hapus semua pilihan

Klik pada [+] indikator di bawah ini untuk mendapatkan penjelasan yang lebih lengkap untuk istilah tertentu.

  • Add-ons

    Resources that extend the functionality of Kubernetes.

    [+]

    Installing addons explains more about using add-ons with your cluster, and lists some popular add-ons.

  • Admission Controller

    A piece of code that intercepts requests to the Kubernetes API server prior to persistence of the object.

    [+]

    Admission controllers are configurable for the Kubernetes API server and may be "validating", "mutating", or both. Any admission controller may reject the request. Mutating controllers may modify the objects they admit; validating controllers may not.

  • Aggregation Layer

    The aggregation layer lets you install additional Kubernetes-style APIs in your cluster.

    [+]

    When you've configured the Kubernetes API Server to support additional APIs, you can add APIService objects to "claim" a URL path in the Kubernetes API.

  • Anotasi

    Suatu pasangan kunci-nilai (key-value) yang digunakan untuk melampirkan metadata nonidentifikasi arbitrer ke objek.

    [+]

    Metadata dalam anotasi bisa berukuran kecil atau besar, terstruktur atau tidak terstruktur, dan dapat menyertakan karakter yang tidak dibolehkan pada label. Klien seperti utilitas dan pustaka dapat mengambil metadata ini.

  • Antarmuka Runtime Container
    Dikenal juga sebagai:Container Runtime Interface (CRI)

    Sebuah API untuk mengintegrasikan runtime Container dengan kubelet.

    [+]

    Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, lihat API dan spesifikasi CRI.

  • Aplikasi
    Lapisan (layer) tempat menjalankan berbagai aplikasi dalam Container. [+]

    Lapisan (layer) tempat menjalankan berbagai aplikasi dalam Container.

  • App Container

    Application containers (or app containers) are the containers in a pod that are started after any init containers have completed.

    [+]

    An init container lets you separate initialization details that are important for the overall workload, and that don't need to keep running once the application container has started. If a pod doesn't have any init containers configured, all the containers in that pod are app containers.

  • Application Architect

    A person responsible for the high-level design of an application.

    [+]

    An architect ensures that an app's implementation allows it to interact with its surrounding components in a scalable, maintainable way. Surrounding components include databases, logging infrastructure, and other microservices.

  • Application Developer

    A person who writes an application that runs in a Kubernetes cluster.

    [+]

    An application developer focuses on one part of an application. The scale of their focus may vary significantly in size.

  • Approver

    A person who can review and approve Kubernetes code contributions.

    [+]

    While code review is focused on code quality and correctness, approval is focused on the holistic acceptance of a contribution. Holistic acceptance includes backwards/forwards compatibility, adhering to API and flag conventions, subtle performance and correctness issues, interactions with other parts of the system, and others. Approver status is scoped to a part of the codebase. Approvers were previously referred to as maintainers.

  • Certificate

    A cryptographically secure file used to validate access to the Kubernetes cluster.

    [+]

    Certificates enable applications within a Kubernetes cluster to access the Kubernetes API securely. Certificates validate that clients are allowed to access the API.

  • cgroup (control group)
    Dikenal juga sebagai:grup kontrol

    Suatu grup proses Linux dengan isolasi, penghitungan, dan pembatasan sumber daya opsional.

    [+]

    cgroup merupakan fitur kernel Linux yang membatasi, menghitung, dan mengisolasi penggunaan sumber daya (CPU, memori, I/O diska, jaringan) untuk sekumpulan proses.

  • CIDR

    CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) is a notation for describing blocks of IP addresses and is used heavily in various networking configurations.

    [+]

    In the context of Kubernetes, each Node is assigned a range of IP addresses through the start address and a subnet mask using CIDR. This allows Nodes to assign each Pod a unique IP address. Although originally a concept for IPv4, CIDR has also been expanded to include IPv6.

  • CLA (Contributor License Agreement)

    Terms under which a contributor grants a license to an open source project for their contributions.

    [+]

    CLAs help resolve legal disputes involving contributed material and intellectual property (IP).

  • Cloud Controller Manager

    A Kubernetes control plane component that embeds cloud-specific control logic. The cloud controller manager lets you link your cluster into your cloud provider's API, and separates out the components that interact with that cloud platform from components that just interact with your cluster.

    [+]

    By decoupling the interoperability logic between Kubernetes and the underlying cloud infrastructure, the cloud-controller-manager component enables cloud providers to release features at a different pace compared to the main Kubernetes project.

  • Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF)

    The Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) builds sustainable ecosystems and fosters a community around projects that orchestrate containers as part of a microservices architecture.

    Kubernetes is a CNCF project.

    [+]

    The CNCF is a sub-foundation of the Linux Foundation. Its mission is to make cloud native computing ubiquitous.

  • Cloud Provider
    Dikenal juga sebagai:Cloud Service Provider

    A business or other organization that offers a cloud computing platform.

    [+]

    Cloud providers, sometimes called Cloud Service Providers (CSPs), offer cloud computing platforms or services.

    Many cloud providers offer managed infrastructure (also called Infrastructure as a Service or IaaS). With managed infrastructure the cloud provider is responsible for servers, storage, and networking while you manage layers on top of that such as running a Kubernetes cluster.

    You can also find Kubernetes as a managed service; sometimes called Platform as a Service, or PaaS. With managed Kubernetes, your cloud provider is responsible for the Kubernetes control plane as well as the nodes and the infrastructure they rely on: networking, storage, and possibly other elements such as load balancers.

  • Cluster Architect

    A person who designs infrastructure that involves one or more Kubernetes clusters.

    [+]

    Cluster architects are concerned with best practices for distributed systems, for example: high availability and security.

  • Cluster Infrastructure
    The infrastructure layer provides and maintains VMs, networking, security groups and others. [+]

    The infrastructure layer provides and maintains VMs, networking, security groups and others.

  • Cluster Operations

    The work involved in managing a Kubernetes cluster: managing day-to-day operations, and co-ordinating upgrades.

    [+]

    Examples of cluster operations work include: deploying new Nodes to scale the cluster; performing software upgrades; implementing security controls; adding or removing storage; configuring cluster networking; managing cluster-wide observability; and responding to events.

  • Code Contributor

    A person who develops and contributes code to the Kubernetes open source codebase.

    [+]

    They are also an active community member who participates in one or more Special Interest Groups (SIGs).

  • ConfigMap

    Sebuah objek API yang digunakan untuk menyimpan data nonkonfidensial sebagai pasangan kunci-nilai (key-value). Pod dapat menggunakan ConfigMap sebagai variabel lingkungan, argumen baris perintah (command-line), atau berkas konfigurasi dalam sebuah volume.

    [+]

    Sebuah ConfigMap memungkinkanmu untuk memisahkan konfigurasi lingkungan tertentu dari image Container, sehingga aplikasimu menjadi lebih portabel.

  • Container

    Sebuah image yang ringan dan dapat dijalankan yang mengandung perangkat lunak and segala dependensi yang dibutuhkan.

    [+]

    Container memisahkan aplikasi dari infrastruktur hos yang digunakan untuk mempermudah penggelaran pada berbagai lingkungan cloud atau OS, dan juga untuk mempermudah penyekalaan.

  • Container Inisialisasi
    Dikenal juga sebagai:Init Container

    Satu atau beberapa Container inisialisasi yang harus berjalan hingga selesai sebelum Container aplikasi apapun dijalankan.

    [+]

    Container inisialisasi mirip seperti Container aplikasi biasa, dengan satu perbedaan: Container inisialisasi harus berjalan sampai selesai sebelum Container aplikasi lainnya dijalankan. Container inisialisasi dijalankan secara seri: setiap Container inisialisasi harus berjalan sampai selesai sebelum Container inisialisasi berikutnya dijalankan.

  • Container Lifecycle Hooks

    The lifecycle hooks expose events in the Container management lifecycle and let the user run code when the events occur.

    [+]

    Two hooks are exposed to Containers: PostStart which executes immediately after a container is created and PreStop which is blocking and is called immediately before a container is terminated.

  • Container network interface (CNI)

    Container network interface (CNI) plugins are a type of Network plugin that adheres to the appc/CNI specification.

    [+]
    • For information on Kubernetes and CNI refer to this.
    • For information on Kubernetes and CNI, see "Network plugins".
  • Container Sementara
    Dikenal juga sebagai:Ephemeral Container

    Jenis tipe Container yang dapat kamu jalankan sementara di dalam sebuah Pod.

    [+]

    Jika kamu ingin menyelidiki sebuah Pod yang bermasalah, kamu dapat menambahkan Container sementara ke Pod tersebut dan menjalankan diagnosis. Container sementara tidak memiliki jaminan sumber daya atau penjadwalan, dan kamu tidak boleh menggunakannya untuk menjalankan bagian mana pun dari beban kerja.

  • Container Storage Interface (CSI)

    The Container Storage Interface (CSI) defines a standard interface to expose storage systems to containers.

    [+]

    CSI allows vendors to create custom storage plugins for Kubernetes without adding them to the Kubernetes repository (out-of-tree plugins). To use a CSI driver from a storage provider, you must first deploy it to your cluster. You will then be able to create a Storage Class that uses that CSI driver.

  • containerd

    A container runtime with an emphasis on simplicity, robustness and portability

    [+]

    containerd is a container runtime that runs as a daemon on Linux or Windows. containerd takes care of fetching and storing container images, executing containers, providing network access, and more.

  • Contributor

    Seseorang yang menyumbangkan kode, dokumentasi, atau waktu mereka untuk membantu proyek atau komunitas Kubernetes.

    [+]

    Kontribusi termasuk pull request (PR), masalah, umpan balik, partisipasi special interest groups (SIG), atau mengorganisir acara komunitas.

  • Control Plane

    Merupakan lapisan orkestrasi Container yang mengekspos API dan antarmuka untuk mendefinisikan, menggelar, dan mengelola siklus hidup suatu Container.

    [+]

    Lapisan ini terdiri dari beragam komponen, seperti (tapi tidak terbatas pada):

    Komponen-komponen tersebut dapat dijalankan sebagai layanan sistem operasi tradisional (daemon) atau sebagai Container. Hos yang menjalankan komponen-komponen tersebut secara historis dikenal sebagai master.

  • CRI-O

    A tool that lets you use OCI container runtimes with Kubernetes CRI.

    [+]

    CRI-O is an implementation of the Container runtime interface (CRI) to enable using container runtimes that are compatible with the Open Container Initiative (OCI) runtime spec.

    Deploying CRI-O allows Kubernetes to use any OCI-compliant runtime as the container runtime for running Pods, and to fetch OCI container images from remote registries.

  • CronJob

    Manages a Job that runs on a periodic schedule.

    [+]

    Similar to a line in a crontab file, a CronJob object specifies a schedule using the cron format.

  • CustomResourceDefinition (CRD)

    Kode khusus yang mendefinisikan sebuah sumber daya untuk ditambahkan ke server API Kubernetes-mu tanpa membangun server khusus tersendiri.

    [+]

    CRD memungkinkanmu untuk memperluas API Kubernetes untuk lingkunganmu jika sumber daya API yang didukung secara publik tidak dapat memenuhi kebutuhanmu.

  • DaemonSet

    Memastikan salinan Pod dijalankan pada sekumpulan Node dalam satu klaster.

    [+]

    Digunakan untuk menggelar daemon sistem sebagai kolektor log dan memonitor agen yang biasanya harus dijalankan di setiap Node.

  • Data Plane
    Lapisan yang menyediakan kapasitas seperti CPU, memori, jaringan, dan penyimpanan sehingga Container dapat dijalankan dan terhubung ke suatu jaringan. [+]

    Lapisan yang menyediakan kapasitas seperti CPU, memori, jaringan, dan penyimpanan sehingga Container dapat dijalankan dan terhubung ke suatu jaringan.

  • Deployment

    Sebuah objek API yang mengelola aplikasi yang direplikasi, biasanya dengan menjalankan Pod tanpa keadaan (state) lokal.

    [+]

    Setiap replika direpresentasikan oleh sebuah Pod, dan Pod tersebut didistribusikan di antara Node dari suatu klaster. Untuk beban kerja yang membutuhkan keadaan lokal, pertimbangkan untuk menggunakan StatefulSet.

  • Developer (disambiguation)

    May refer to: Application Developer, Code Contributor, or Platform Developer.

    [+]

    This overloaded term may have different meanings depending on the context

  • Disrupsi

    Disrupsi merupakan kejadian yang menyebabkan hilangnya satu atau beberapa Pod. Suatu disrupsi memiliki konsekuensi terhadap sumber daya beban kerja, seperti Deployment, yang bergantung pada Pod yang terpengaruh.

    [+]

    Jika kamu, sebagai operator klaster, menghancurkan sebuah Pod milik suatu aplikasi, maka hal ini dalam Kubernetes dikenal sebagai disrupsi disengaja (voluntary disruption). Jika sebuah Pod menghilang karena kegagalan Node, atau pemadaman yang mempengaruhi zona kegagalan yang lebih luas, maka dalam Kubernetes dikenal dengan istilah disrupsi tidak disengaja (involuntary disruption).

    Lihat Disrupsi untuk informasi lebih lanjut.

  • Docker

    Docker (secara spesifik, Docker Engine) merupakan suatu teknologi perangkat lunak yang menyediakan virtualisasi pada level sistem operasi yang juga dikenal sebagai Container.

    [+]

    Docker menggunakan fitur isolasi sumber daya pada kernel Linux seperti cgroup dan namespace, dan UnionFS seperti OverlayFS dan lainnya untuk memungkinkan masing-masing Container dijalankan pada satu instans Linux, menghindari beban tambahan (overhead) saat memulai dan menjalankan VM.

  • Downstream (disambiguation)

    May refer to: code in the Kubernetes ecosystem that depends upon the core Kubernetes codebase or a forked repo.

    [+]
    • In the Kubernetes Community: Conversations often use downstream to mean the ecosystem, code, or third-party tools that rely on the core Kubernetes codebase. For example, a new feature in Kubernetes may be adopted by applications downstream to improve their functionality.
    • In GitHub or git: The convention is to refer to a forked repo as downstream, whereas the source repo is considered upstream.
  • Dynamic Volume Provisioning

    Allows users to request automatic creation of storage Volumes.

    [+]

    Dynamic provisioning eliminates the need for cluster administrators to pre-provision storage. Instead, it automatically provisions storage by user request. Dynamic volume provisioning is based on an API object, StorageClass, referring to a Volume Plugin that provisions a Volume and the set of parameters to pass to the Volume Plugin.

  • Ekstensi

    Ekstensi adalah komponen perangkat lunak yang memperluas dan terintegrasi secara mendalam dengan Kubernetes untuk mendukung perangkat keras baru.

    [+]

    Sebagian besar admin klaster akan menggunakan instans Kubernetes yang dihoskan (hosted) atau didistribusikan. Akibatnya, hampir semua pengguna Kubernetes perlu menginstal ekstensi dan sedikit pengguna yang perlu membuat ekstensi baru.

  • Endpoints

    Endpoints track the IP addresses of Pods with matching selectors.

    [+]

    Endpoints can be configured manually for Services without selectors specified. The EndpointSlice resource provides a scalable and extensible alternative to Endpoints.

  • EndpointSlice

    A way to group network endpoints together with Kubernetes resources.

    [+]

    A scalable and extensible way to group network endpoints together. These can be used by kube-proxy to establish network routes on each node.

  • etcd

    Penyimpanan key value konsisten yang digunakan sebagai penyimpanan data klaster Kubernetes.

    [+]

    Selalu perhatikan mekanisme untuk mem-backup data etcd pada klaster Kubernetes kamu. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut tentang etcd, lihat dokumentasi etcd.

  • FlexVolume

    FlexVolume is an interface for creating out-of-tree volume plugins. The Container Storage Interface is a newer interface which addresses several problems with FlexVolumes.

    [+]

    FlexVolumes enable users to write their own drivers and add support for their volumes in Kubernetes. FlexVolume driver binaries and dependencies must be installed on host machines. This requires root access. The Storage SIG suggests implementing a CSI driver if possible since it addresses the limitations with FlexVolumes.

  • Grup API

    Sekumpulan path terkait pada API Kubernetes.

    [+]

    Kamu dapat mengaktifkan atau menonaktifkan setiap grup API dengan mengubah konfigurasi server API-mu. Kamu juga dapat menonaktifkan atau mengaktifkan path untuk sumber daya tertentu. Grup API memudahkan penambahan ekstensi dari API Kubernetes. Grup API ditentukan di dalam path REST dan field apiVersion dari objek terserialisasi.

    • Baca Grup API untuk informasi lebih lanjut.
  • Helm Chart

    A package of pre-configured Kubernetes resources that can be managed with the Helm tool.

    [+]

    Charts provide a reproducible way of creating and sharing Kubernetes applications. A single chart can be used to deploy something simple, like a memcached Pod, or something complex, like a full web app stack with HTTP servers, databases, caches, and so on.

  • Horizontal Pod Autoscaler
    Dikenal juga sebagai:HPA

    An API resource that automatically scales the number of Pod replicas based on targeted CPU utilization or custom metric targets.

    [+]

    HPA is typically used with ReplicationControllers, Deployments, or ReplicaSets. It cannot be applied to objects that cannot be scaled, for example DaemonSets.

  • HostAliases

    A HostAliases is a mapping between the IP address and hostname to be injected into a Pod's hosts file.

    [+]

    HostAliases is an optional list of hostnames and IP addresses that will be injected into the Pod's hosts file if specified. This is only valid for non-hostNetwork Pods.

  • Image

    Instans yang disimpan dari sebuah Container yang memuat seperangkat perangkat lunak yang dibutuhkan untuk menjalankan sebuah aplikasi.

    [+]

    Sebuah mekanisme untuk mengemas perangkat lunak yang memungkinkan perangkat lunak tersebut untuk disimpan di dalam register Container, ditarik ke dalam sistem lokal, dan dijalankan sebagai suatu aplikasi. Metadata disertakan di dalam image yang mengindikasikan executable apa saja yang perlu dijalankan, siapa yang membuatnya, dan informasi lainnya.

  • Ingress

    Sebuah obyek API yang mengatur akses eksternal terhadap Service yang ada di dalam klaster, biasanya dalam bentuk request HTTP.

    [+]

    Ingress juga menyediakan load balancing, terminasi SSL, serta name-based virtual hosting.

  • Istio

    An open platform (not Kubernetes-specific) that provides a uniform way to integrate microservices, manage traffic flow, enforce policies, and aggregate telemetry data.

    [+]

    Adding Istio does not require changing application code. It is a layer of infrastructure between a service and the network, which when combined with service deployments, is commonly referred to as a service mesh. Istio's control plane abstracts away the underlying cluster management platform, which may be Kubernetes, Mesosphere, etc.

  • Job

    Tugas terbatas atau bertumpuk (batch) yang berjalan sampai selesai.

    [+]

    Membuat satu atau beberapa objek Pod dan memastikan bahwa sejumlah objek tersebut berhasil dihentikan. Saat Pod berhasil diselesaikan (complete), maka Job melacak keberhasilan penyelesaian tersebut.

  • Katalog Servis

    Sebuah ekstensi API yang memungkinkan aplikasi berjalan pada klaster Kubernetes untuk mempermudah penggunaan perangkat lunak yang dikelola eksternal, seperti servis penyimpanan data yang ditawarkan oleh penyedia layanan komputasi awan.

    [+]

    Ini menyediakan cara untuk membuat daftar, melakukan pembuatan, dan mengikat dengan servis terkelola eksternal dari makelar servis tanpa membutuhkan pengetahuan mendalam mengenai cara servis tersebut dibuat dan diatur.

  • Klaster

    Sekumpulan mesin pekerja, yang dikenal sebagai Node, yang menjalankan aplikasi dalam Container. Setiap klaster setidaknya mempunyai satu Node pekerja.

    [+]

    Node pekerja menjalankan Pod yang merupakan komponen dari beban kerja aplikasi. Control Plane mengelola Node pekerja dan Pod di dalam klaster. Pada lingkungan produksi, control plane biasanya berjalan di beberapa komputer dan suatu klaster pada umumnya menjalankan beberapa Node, hal ini akan memberikan toleransi kesalahan (fault-tolerance) dan ketersediaan tinggi (high availability).

  • Kontrol Akses Berbasis Rol
    Dikenal juga sebagai:Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)

    Mengelola keputusan otorisasi, memungkinkan admin untuk mengonfigurasi kebijakan akses secara dinamis melalui API Kubernetes.

    [+]

    RBAC menggunakan Role yang memuat aturan perizinan, dan RoleBinding yang memberikan izin sebagaimana telah ditentukan di dalam Role untuk sekumpulan pengguna.

  • Kops

    A CLI tool that helps you create, destroy, upgrade and maintain production-grade, highly available, Kubernetes clusters.

    [+]
    Note: kops has general availability support only for AWS. Support for using kops with GCE and VMware vSphere are in alpha.

    kops provisions your cluster with:

    • Fully automated installation
    • DNS-based cluster identification
    • Self-healing: everything runs in Auto-Scaling Groups
    • Limited OS support (Debian preferred, Ubuntu 16.04 supported, early support for CentOS & RHEL)
    • High availability (HA) support
    • The ability to directly provision, or to generate Terraform manifests

    You can also build your own cluster using Kubeadm as a building block. kops builds on the kubeadm work.

  • Kuantitas
    Representasi bilangan bulat dari bilangan kecil atau besar menggunakan sufiks SI. Kuantitas adalah representasi dari bilangan kecil atau besar menggunakan notasi bilangan bulat kompak dengan sufiks SI. Bilangan pecahan direpresentasikan dengan satuan mili, sedangkan bilangan besar direpresentasikan dengan satuan kilo, mega, atau giga. Misalnya, angka 1,5 direpresentasikan sebagai 1500m, sedangkan angka 1000 dapat direpresentasikan sebagai 1k, dan 1000000 sebagai 1M. Kamu juga dapat menentukan sufiks notasi biner; angka 2048 dapat ditulis sebagai 2Ki. [+]

    Representasi bilangan bulat dari bilangan kecil atau besar menggunakan sufiks SI.

    Kuantitas adalah representasi dari bilangan kecil atau besar menggunakan notasi bilangan bulat kompak dengan sufiks SI. Bilangan pecahan direpresentasikan dengan satuan mili, sedangkan bilangan besar direpresentasikan dengan satuan kilo, mega, atau giga.

    Misalnya, angka 1,5 direpresentasikan sebagai 1500m, sedangkan angka 1000 dapat direpresentasikan sebagai 1k, dan 1000000 sebagai 1M. Kamu juga dapat menentukan sufiks notasi biner; angka 2048 dapat ditulis sebagai 2Ki.

    Satuan desimal yang diterima (pangkat 10) adalah m (mili), k (kilo, sengaja huruf kecil), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), P (peta), E (exa).

    Unit biner (pangkat-2) yang diterima adalah Ki (kibi), Mi (mebi), Gi (gibi), Ti (tebi), Pi (pebi), Ei (exbi).

  • kube-apiserver

    Komponen control plane yang mengekspos API Kubernetes. Merupakan front-end dari control plane Kubernetes.

    [+]

    Komponen ini didesain agar dapat diskalakan secara horizontal. Lihat Membangun Klaster HA.

  • kube-controller-manager

    Komponen di master yang menjalankan kontroler.

    [+]

    Secara logis, setiap kontroler adalah sebuah proses yang berbeda, tetapi untuk mengurangi kompleksitas, kontroler-kontroler ini dikompilasi menjadi sebuah binary yang dijalankan sebagai satu proses.

  • kube-proxy

    kube-proxy is a network proxy that runs on each node in your cluster, implementing part of the Kubernetes Service concept.

    [+]

    kube-proxy maintains network rules on nodes. These network rules allow network communication to your Pods from network sessions inside or outside of your cluster.

    kube-proxy uses the operating system packet filtering layer if there is one and it's available. Otherwise, kube-proxy forwards the traffic itself.

  • kube-scheduler

    Komponen di master yang bertugas mengamati pod yang baru dibuat dan belum di-assign ke suatu node dan kemudian akan memilih sebuah node dimana pod baru tersebut akan dijalankan.

    [+]

    Faktor-faktor yang diperhatikan dalam proses ini adalah kebutuhan resource secara individual dan kolektif, konstrain perangkat keras/perangkat lunak/peraturan, spesifikasi afinitas dan non-afinitas, lokalisasi data, interferensi inter-workload dan deadlines.

  • Kubeadm

    A tool for quickly installing Kubernetes and setting up a secure cluster.

    [+]

    You can use kubeadm to install both the control plane and the worker node components.

  • Kubectl

    Sebuah utilitas baris perintah untuk berkomunikasi dengan suatu server API Kubernetes.

    [+]

    Kamu dapat menggunakan kubectl untuk membuat, memeriksa, memperbarui, dan menghapus objek Kubernetes.

  • Kubelet
    Agen yang dijalankan pada setiap node di klaster dan bertugas memastikan kontainer dijalankan di dalam pod. [+]

    Agen yang dijalankan pada setiap node di klaster dan bertugas memastikan kontainer dijalankan di dalam pod.

  • Kubernetes API

    The application that serves Kubernetes functionality through a RESTful interface and stores the state of the cluster.

    [+]

    Kubernetes resources and "records of intent" are all stored as API objects, and modified via RESTful calls to the API. The API allows configuration to be managed in a declarative way. Users can interact with the Kubernetes API directly, or via tools like kubectl. The core Kubernetes API is flexible and can also be extended to support custom resources.

  • Label

    Tags objects with identifying attributes that are meaningful and relevant to users.

    [+]

    Labels are key/value pairs that are attached to objects such as Pods. They are used to organize and to select subsets of objects.

  • Layanan Terkelola

    Sebuah perangkat lunak yang dikelola oleh penyedia layanan pihak ketiga.

    [+]

    Beberapa contoh dari servis terkelola adalah Microsoft Azure Cloud Queue, Amazon Simple Queue Service, and Google Cloud Pub/Sub, selain itu, bisa juga penawaran perangkat lunak apa pun yang dapat digunakan oleh suatu aplikasi. Katalog Servis menyediakan cara untuk membuat daftar, melakukan provision, dan mengikat dengan servis terkelola yang ditawarkan oleh makelar servis.

  • LimitRange

    Provides constraints to limit resource consumption per Containers or Pods in a namespace.

    [+]

    LimitRange limits the quantity of objects that can be created by type, as well as the amount of compute resources that may be requested/consumed by individual Containers or Pods in a namespace.

  • Logging

    Logs are the list of events that are logged by cluster or application.

    [+]

    Application and systems logs can help you understand what is happening inside your cluster. The logs are particularly useful for debugging problems and monitoring cluster activity.

  • Makelar Servis

    Sebuah endpoint untuk kumpulan servis terkelola yang ditawarkan dan dikelola oleh penyedia layanan pihak ketiga.

    [+]

    Makelar servis mengimplementasikan [Open Service Broker API spec] (https://github.com/openservicebrokerapi/servicebroker/blob/v2.13/spec.md) dan menyediakan standar baku untuk aplikasi menggunakan servis yang dikelolanya. [Katalog Servis] (/docs/concepts/service-catalog) menyediakan cara untuk membuat daftar, melakukan provision, dan mengikat dengan servis terkelola yang ditawarkan oleh makelar servis.

  • Manifest

    Specification of a Kubernetes API object in JSON or YAML format.

    [+]

    A manifest specifies the desired state of an object that Kubernetes will maintain when you apply the manifest. Each configuration file can contain multiple manifests.

  • Master

    Legacy term, used as synonym for nodes hosting the control plane.

    [+]

    The term is still being used by some provisioning tools, such as kubeadm, and managed services, to label nodes with kubernetes.io/role and control placement of control plane pods.

  • Member

    A continuously active contributor in the K8s community.

    [+]

    Members can have issues and PRs assigned to them and participate in special interest groups (SIGs) through GitHub teams. Pre-submit tests are automatically run for members' PRs. A member is expected to remain an active contributor to the community.

  • Minikube

    A tool for running Kubernetes locally.

    [+]

    Minikube runs a single-node cluster inside a VM on your computer. You can use Minikube to try Kubernetes in a learning environment.

  • Mirror Pod

    A pod object that a kubelet uses to represent a static pod

    [+]

    When the kubelet finds a static pod in its configuration, it automatically tries to create a Pod object on the Kubernetes API server for it. This means that the pod will be visible on the API server, but cannot be controlled from there.

    (For example, removing a mirror pod will not stop the kubelet daemon from running it).

  • Name

    String yang dihasilkan oleh klien yang mengacu pada sebuah objek dalam suatu URL resource, seperti /api/v1/pods/some-name.

    [+]

    Sebuah objek dengan kind yang sama tidak boleh memiliki nama yang sama pada suatu waktu tertentu. Meskipun begitu, apabila kamu menghapus sebuah objek, kamu membuat sebuah objek baru (yang memiliki kind yang sama) dengan nama yang sama dengan objek yang kamu hapus sebelumnya.

  • Namespace

    Sebuah abstraksi yang digunakan oleh Kubernetes untuk mendukung multipel klaster virtual pada klaster fisik yang sama.

    [+]

    Namespace digunakan untuk mengatur objek-objek di dalam suatu klaster dan menyediakan cara untuk membagi sumber daya klaster. Nama sumber daya yang berada di dalam satu Namespace yang sama harus unik, akan tetapi tidak diharuskan dalam hal lintas Namespace.

  • Network Policy

    A specification of how groups of Pods are allowed to communicate with each other and with other network endpoints.

    [+]

    Network Policies help you declaratively configure which Pods are allowed to connect to each other, which namespaces are allowed to communicate, and more specifically which port numbers to enforce each policy on. NetworkPolicy resources use labels to select Pods and define rules which specify what traffic is allowed to the selected Pods. Network Policies are implemented by a supported network plugin provided by a network provider. Be aware that creating a network resource without a controller to implement it will have no effect.

  • Node

    A node is a worker machine in Kubernetes.

    [+]

    A worker node may be a VM or physical machine, depending on the cluster. It has local daemons or services necessary to run Pods and is managed by the control plane. The daemons on a node include kubelet, kube-proxy, and a container runtime implementing the CRI such as Docker.

    In early Kubernetes versions, Nodes were called "Minions".

  • Operator Klaster

    Seseorang yang mengonfigurasi, mengontrol, dan memonitor klaster.

    [+]

    Tanggung jawab utama operator klaster adalah menjaga dan menjalankan klaster, yang mungkin melibatkan kegiatan pemeliharaan berkala atau peningkatan.

    Catatan: Operator klaster berbeda dari pola Operator yang memperluas API Kubernetes.
  • Operator pattern

    The operator pattern is a system design that links a Controller to one or more custom resources.

    [+]

    You can extend Kubernetes by adding controllers to your cluster, beyond the built-in controllers that come as part of Kubernetes itself.

    If a running application acts as a controller and has API access to carry out tasks against a custom resource that's defined in the control plane, that's an example of the Operator pattern.

  • Pengontrol
    Dikenal juga sebagai:Controller

    Di Kubernetes, pengontrol adalah kontrol tertutup yang mengawasi kondisi klaster, lalu membuat atau meminta perubahan jika diperlukan. Setiap pengontrol mencoba untuk memindahkan status klaster saat ini lebih dekat ke kondisi yang diinginkan.

    [+]

    Pengontrol mengawasi keadaan bersama (shared state) dari klastermu melalui apiserver (bagian dari Control Plane).

    Beberapa pengontrol juga berjalan di dalam control plane, menyediakan kontrol tertutup yang merupakan inti dari operasi Kubernetes. Sebagai contoh: pengontrol Deployment, pengontrol DaemonSet, pengontrol Namespace, dan pengontrol PersistentVolume (dan lainnya) semuanya berjalan di dalam kube-controller-manager.

  • Persistent Volume

    Sebuat objek API yang merepresentasikan bagian penyimpanan pada klaster. Tersedia sebagai sumber daya umum yang dapat dipasang (pluggable) yang tetap bertahan bahkan di luar siklus hidup suatu Pod.

    [+]

    PersistentVolume (PV) menyediakan suatu API yang mengabstraksi detail tentang bagaimana penyimpanan disediakan dari cara penggunaannya. PV digunakan secara langsung pada skenario di mana penyimpanan dapat dibuat terlebih dahulu (penyediaan statis). Untuk skenario yang membutuhkan penyimpanan sesuai permintaan (penyediaan dinamis), maka yang dapat digunakan sebagai penggantinya adalah PersistentVolumeClaim (PV).

  • Persistent Volume Claim

    Mengklaim sumber daya penyimpanan yang didefinisikan di dalam suatu PersistentVolume, sehingga PersistentVolume tersebut dapat dipasang (mounted) sebagai sebuah volume pada suatu Container.

    [+]

    Menentukan jumlah penyimpanan, bagaimana penyimpanan akan diakses (hanya baca (read-only), baca tulis (read-write), dan/atau eksklusif) dan bagaimana penyimpanan tersebut dapat diklaim kembali (dipertahankan, didaur ulang (recycled) atau dihapus). Detail dari penyimpanan itu sendiri dideskripsikan pada objek PersistentVolume.

  • Platform Developer

    Seseorang yang menyesuaikan platform Kubernetes agar sesuai dengan kebutuhan proyek mereka.

    [+]

    Pengembang platform dapat, misalnya, menggunakan Sumber Daya Kustom atau Memperluas API Kubernetes dengan lapisan agregasi untuk menambahkan fungsionalitas ke instansi Kubernetes mereka, khususnya untuk aplikasi mereka. Beberapa Pengembang Platform juga kontributor dan mengembangkan perluasan yang berkontribusi pada komunitas Kubernetes. Lainnya mengembangkan sumber tertutup komersial atau perluasan spesifik situs.

  • Pod

    Unit Kubernetes yang paling sederhana dan kecil. Sebuah Pod merepresentasikan sebuah set kontainer yang dijalankan kontainer pada kluster kamu.

    [+]

    Sebuah Pod biasanya digunakan untuk menjalankan sebuah kontainer. Pod juga dapat digunakan untuk menjalankan beberapa sidecar container dan beberapa fiture tambahan. Pod biasanya diatur oleh sebuah Deployment.

  • Pod Disruption Budget
    Dikenal juga sebagai:PDB
    A Pod Disruption Budget allows an application owner to create an object for a replicated application, that ensures a certain number or percentage of Pods with an assigned label will not be voluntarily evicted at any point in time. PDBs cannot prevent an involuntary disruption, but will count against the budget. [+]

    A Pod Disruption Budget allows an application owner to create an object for a replicated application, that ensures a certain number or percentage of Pods with an assigned label will not be voluntarily evicted at any point in time. PDBs cannot prevent an involuntary disruption, but will count against the budget.

  • Pod Lifecycle

    The sequence of states through which a Pod passes during its lifetime.

    [+]

    The Pod Lifecycle is defined by the states or phases of a Pod. There are five possible Pod phases: Pending, Running, Succeeded, Failed, and Unknown. A high-level description of the Pod state is summarized in the PodStatus phase field.

  • Pod Priority

    Pod Priority indicates the importance of a Pod relative to other Pods.

    [+]

    Pod Priority gives the ability to set scheduling priority of a Pod to be higher and lower than other Pods — an important feature for production clusters workload.

  • Pod Security Policy

    Enables fine-grained authorization of Pod creation and updates.

    [+]

    A cluster-level resource that controls security sensitive aspects of the Pod specification. The PodSecurityPolicy objects define a set of conditions that a Pod must run with in order to be accepted into the system, as well as defaults for the related fields. Pod Security Policy control is implemented as an optional admission controller.

  • PodPreset

    An API object that injects information such as secrets, volume mounts, and environment variables into Pods at creation time.

    [+]

    This object chooses the Pods to inject information into using standard selectors. This allows the podspec definitions to be nonspecific, decoupling the podspec from environment specific configuration.

  • Preemption

    Preemption logic in Kubernetes helps a pending Pod to find a suitable Node by evicting low priority Pods existing on that Node.

    [+]

    If a Pod cannot be scheduled, the scheduler tries to preempt lower priority Pods to make scheduling of the pending Pod possible.

  • Proxy

    In computing, a proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary for a remote service.

    [+]

    A client interacts with the proxy; the proxy copies the client's data to the actual server; the actual server replies to the proxy; the proxy sends the actual server's reply to the client.

    kube-proxy is a network proxy that runs on each node in your cluster, implementing part of the Kubernetes Service concept.

    You can run kube-proxy as a plain userland proxy service. If your operating system supports it, you can instead run kube-proxy in a hybrid mode that achieves the same overall effect using less system resources.

  • Pugasan Peranti
    Dikenal juga sebagai:Device Plugin

    Pugasan peranti berjalan pada Node pekerja dan menyediakan akses ke sumber daya untuk Pod, seperti perangkat keras lokal, yang membutuhkan langkah inisialisasi atau penyiapan khusus.

    [+]

    Pugasan peranti menawarkan sumber daya ke kubelet, sehingga beban kerja Pod dapat mengakses fitur perangkat keras yang berhubungan dengan Node di mana Pod tersebut berjalan. Kamu dapat menggelar sebuah pugasan peranti sebagai sebuah DaemonSet, atau menginstal perangkat lunak pugasan peranti secara langsung pada setiap Node target.

    Lihat Pugasan Peranti untuk informasi lebih lanjut.

  • QoS Class

    QoS Class (Quality of Service Class) provides a way for Kubernetes to classify Pods within the cluster into several classes and make decisions about scheduling and eviction.

    [+]

    QoS Class of a Pod is set at creation time based on its compute resources requests and limits settings. QoS classes are used to make decisions about Pods scheduling and eviction. Kubernetes can assign one of the following QoS classes to a Pod: Guaranteed, Burstable or BestEffort.

  • Quantity

    A whole-number representation of small or large numbers using SI suffixes.

    [+]

    Quantities are representations of small or large numbers using a compact, whole-number notation with SI suffixes. Fractional numbers are represented using milli units, while large numbers can be represented using kilo, mega, or giga units.

    For instance, the number 1.5 is represented as 1500m, while the number 1000 can be represented as 1k, and 1000000 as 1M. You can also specify binary-notation suffixes; the number 2048 can be written as 2Ki.

    The accepted decimal (power-of-10) units are m (milli), k (kilo, intentionally lowercase), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), P (peta), E (exa).

    The accepted binary (power-of-2) units are Ki (kibi), Mi (mebi), Gi (gibi), Ti (tebi), Pi (pebi), Ei (exbi).

  • ReplicaSet

    A ReplicaSet (aims to) maintain a set of replica Pods running at any given time.

    [+]

    Workload objects such as Deployment make use of ReplicaSets to ensure that the configured number of Pods are running in your cluster, based on the spec of that ReplicaSet.

  • ReplicationController

    A workload resource that manages a replicated application, ensuring that a specific number of instances of a Pod are running.

    [+]

    The control plane ensures that the defined number of Pods are running, even if some Pods fail, if you delete Pods manually, or if too many are started by mistake.

    Note: ReplicationController is deprecated. See Deployment, which is similar.
  • Resource Quotas

    Provides constraints that limit aggregate resource consumption per Namespace.

    [+]

    Limits the quantity of objects that can be created in a namespace by type, as well as the total amount of compute resources that may be consumed by resources in that project.

  • Reviewer

    A person who reviews code for quality and correctness on some part of the project.

    [+]

    Reviewers are knowledgeable about both the codebase and software engineering principles. Reviewer status is scoped to a part of the codebase.

  • Runtime Container

    Runtime Container adalah perangkat lunak yang bertanggung jawab untuk menjalankan Container.

    [+]

    Kubernetes mendukung beberapa runtime Container: Docker, containerd, CRI-O, dan implementasi apapun dari Kubernetes CRI (Container Runtime Interface).

  • Secret

    Stores sensitive information, such as passwords, OAuth tokens, and ssh keys.

    [+]

    Allows for more control over how sensitive information is used and reduces the risk of accidental exposure, including encryption at rest. A Pod references the secret as a file in a volume mount or by the kubelet pulling images for a pod. Secrets are great for confidential data and ConfigMaps for non-confidential data.

  • Security Context

    The securityContext field defines privilege and access control settings for a Pod or container.

    [+]

    In a securityContext, you can define: the user that processes run as, the group that processes run as, and privilege settings. You can also configure security policies (for example: SELinux, AppArmor or seccomp).

    The PodSpec.securityContext setting applies to all containers in a Pod.

  • Selector

    Allows users to filter a list of resources based on labels.

    [+]

    Selectors are applied when querying lists of resources to filter them by labels.

  • Service

    Suatu cara yang abstrak untuk mengekspos aplikasi yang berjalan pada sebuah kumpulan Pod sebagai layanan jaringan.

    [+]

    Rangkaian Pod yang ditargetkan oleh Service (biasanya) ditentukan oleh selector. Jika lebih banyak Pod ditambahkan atau dihapus, maka kumpulan Pod yang cocok dengan Selector juga akan berubah. Service memastikan bahwa lalu lintas jaringan dapat diarahkan ke kumpulan Pod yang ada saat ini sebagai Workload.

  • ServiceAccount

    Provides an identity for processes that run in a Pod.

    [+]

    When processes inside Pods access the cluster, they are authenticated by the API server as a particular service account, for example, default. When you create a Pod, if you do not specify a service account, it is automatically assigned the default service account in the same Namespace.

  • shuffle sharding

    A technique for assigning requests to queues that provides better isolation than hashing modulo the number of queues.

    [+]

    We are often concerned with insulating different flows of requests from each other, so that a high-intensity flow does not crowd out low-intensity flows. A simple way to put requests into queues is to hash some characteristics of the request, modulo the number of queues, to get the index of the queue to use. The hash function uses as input characteristics of the request that align with flows. For example, in the Internet this is often the 5-tuple of source and destination address, protocol, and source and destination port.

    That simple hash-based scheme has the property that any high-intensity flow will crowd out all the low-intensity flows that hash to the same queue. Providing good insulation for a large number of flows requires a large number of queues, which is problematic. Shuffle sharding is a more nimble technique that can do a better job of insulating the low-intensity flows from the high-intensity flows. The terminology of shuffle sharding uses the metaphor of dealing a hand from a deck of cards; each queue is a metaphorical card. The shuffle sharding technique starts with hashing the flow-identifying characteristics of the request, to produce a hash value with dozens or more of bits. Then the hash value is used as a source of entropy to shuffle the deck and deal a hand of cards (queues). All the dealt queues are examined, and the request is put into one of the examined queues with the shortest length. With a modest hand size, it does not cost much to examine all the dealt cards and a given low-intensity flow has a good chance to dodge the effects of a given high-intensity flow. With a large hand size it is expensive to examine the dealt queues and more difficult for the low-intensity flows to dodge the collective effects of a set of high-intensity flows. Thus, the hand size should be chosen judiciously.

  • SIG (special interest group)

    Community members who collectively manage an ongoing piece or aspect of the larger Kubernetes open source project.

    [+]

    Members within a SIG have a shared interest in advancing a specific area, such as architecture, API machinery, or documentation. SIGs must follow the SIG governance guidelines, but can have their own contribution policy and channels of communication.

    For more information, see the kubernetes/community repo and the current list of SIGs and Working Groups.

  • StatefulSet

    Melakukan proses manajemen deployment dan scaling dari sebuah set Pods, serta menjamin mekanisme ordering dan keunikan dari Pod ini.

    [+]

    Seperti halnya Deployment, sebuah StatefulSet akan melakukan proses manajemen Pod yang didasarkan pada spec container identik. Meskipun begitu tidak seperti sebuah Deployment, sebuah StatefulSet akan menjamin identitas setiap Pod yang ada. Pod ini akan dibuat berdasarkan spec yang sama, tetapi tidak dapat digantikan satu sama lainnya: setiap Pod memiliki identifier persisten yang akan di-maintain meskipun pod tersebut di (re)schedule.

    Sebuah StatefulSet beroperasi dengan pola yang sama dengan Kontroler lainnya. Kamu dapat mendefinisikan state yang diinginkan pada objek StatefulSet, dan kontroler StatefulSet akan membuat update yang dibutuhkan dari state saat ini.

  • Static Pod

    A pod managed directly by the kubelet daemon on a specific node,

    [+]

    without the API server observing it.

  • Storage Class

    A StorageClass provides a way for administrators to describe different available storage types.

    [+]

    StorageClasses can map to quality-of-service levels, backup policies, or to arbitrary policies determined by cluster administrators. Each StorageClass contains the fields provisioner, parameters, and reclaimPolicy, which are used when a Persistent Volume belonging to the class needs to be dynamically provisioned. Users can request a particular class using the name of a StorageClass object.

  • sysctl

    sysctl is a semi-standardized interface for reading or changing the attributes of the running Unix kernel.

    [+]

    On Unix-like systems, sysctl is both the name of the tool that administrators use to view and modify these settings, and also the system call that the tool uses.

    Container runtimes and network plugins may rely on sysctl values being set a certain way.

  • Taint

    A core object consisting of three required properties: key, value, and effect. Taints prevent the scheduling of Pods on nodes or node groups.

    [+]

    Taints and tolerations work together to ensure that pods are not scheduled onto inappropriate nodes. One or more taints are applied to a node. A node should only schedule a Pod with the matching tolerations for the configured taints.

  • Toleration

    A core object consisting of three required properties: key, value, and effect. Tolerations enable the scheduling of pods on nodes or node groups that have matching taints.

    [+]

    Tolerations and taints work together to ensure that pods are not scheduled onto inappropriate nodes. One or more tolerations are applied to a pod. A toleration indicates that the pod is allowed (but not required) to be scheduled on nodes or node groups with matching taints.

  • UID

    String yang dihasilkan oleh sistem Kubernetes untuk mengidentifikasi objek secara unik.

    [+]

    Setiap objek yang ada pada klaster Kubernetes memiliki UID yang unik. Hal ini dilakukan untuk membedakan keberadaan historis suatu entitas dengan kind dan nama yang serupa.

  • Upstream (disambiguation)

    May refer to: core Kubernetes or the source repo from which a repo was forked.

    [+]
    • In the Kubernetes Community: Conversations often use upstream to mean the core Kubernetes codebase, which the general ecosystem, other code, or third-party tools rely upon. For example, community members may suggest that a feature is moved upstream so that it is in the core codebase instead of in a plugin or third-party tool.
    • In GitHub or git: The convention is to refer to a source repo as upstream, whereas the forked repo is considered downstream.
  • Variabel Lingkungan Container
    Dikenal juga sebagai:Container Environment Variables

    Variabel lingkungan Container merupakan pasangan nama=nilai yang dapat digunakan untuk menyediakan informasi penting bagi Container yang dijalankan pada Pod.

    [+]

    Variabel lingkungan Container menyediakan informasi yang dibutuhkan oleh aplikasi yang berjalan di dalam Container bersama dengan informasi mengenai sumber daya penting yang dibutuhkan oleh Container. Sebagai contoh, detail sistem berkas (file system), informasi mengenai Container itu sendiri, dan sumber daya klaster lainnya seperti endpoint Service.

  • Volume

    Sebuah direktori yang mengandung data, dapat diakses oleh kontainer-kontainer di dalam pod.

    [+]

    Sebuah volume pada Kubernetes akan dianggap hidup selama pod dimana volume tersebut berada dalam kondisi hidup. Dengan demikian, sebuah volume yang hidup lebih lama dari containers yang dijalankan pada pod, serta data volume tersebut disimpan pada container akan di-restart.

  • Volume Plugin

    A Volume Plugin enables integration of storage within a Pod.

    [+]

    A Volume Plugin lets you attach and mount storage volumes for use by a Pod. Volume plugins can be in tree or out of tree. In tree plugins are part of the Kubernetes code repository and follow its release cycle. Out of tree plugins are developed independently.

  • WG (working group)

    Facilitates the discussion and/or implementation of a short-lived, narrow, or decoupled project for a committee, SIG, or cross-SIG effort.

    [+]

    Working groups are a way of organizing people to accomplish a discrete task, and are relatively easy to create and deprecate when inactive.

    For more information, see the kubernetes/community repo and the current list of SIGs and working groups.

  • Workload

    A workload is an application running on Kubernetes.

    [+]

    Various core objects that represent different types or parts of a workload include the DaemonSet, Deployment, Job, ReplicaSet, and StatefulSet objects.

    For example, a workload that has a web server and a database might run the database in one StatefulSet and the web server in a Deployment.

Last modified September 28, 2020 at 4:00 PM PST: Translate Standardized Glossary page into Bahasa (7aeaa6e48)