이 용어집은 쿠버네티스 용어의 종합적이고 표준화된 리스트를 제공한다. 용어집은 K8s 고유의 기술 용어 뿐만 아니라, 맥락을 이해하는데 유용한 더 일반적인 용어도 포함한다.
태그에 따라 용어 필터링
다음 [+] 표시를 클릭하면 각 용어에 대한 더 자세한 설명을 볼 수 있다.
- API GroupLINK
A set of related paths in Kubernetes API.[+]
You can enable or disable each API group by changing the configuration of your API server. You can also disable or enable paths to specific resources. API group makes it easier to extend the Kubernetes API. The API group is specified in a REST path and in the
apiVersionfield of a serialized object.
- Read API Group for more information.
- Application ArchitectLINK
A person responsible for the high-level design of an application.[+]
An architect ensures that an app's implementation allows it to interact with its surrounding components in a scalable, maintainable way. Surrounding components include databases, logging infrastructure, and other microservices.
A person who can review and approve Kubernetes code contributions.[+]
While code review is focused on code quality and correctness, approval is focused on the holistic acceptance of a contribution. Holistic acceptance includes backwards/forwards compatibility, adhering to API and flag conventions, subtle performance and correctness issues, interactions with other parts of the system, and others. Approver status is scoped to a part of the codebase. Approvers were previously referred to as maintainers.
CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing) is a notation for describing blocks of IP addresses and is used heavily in various networking configurations.[+]
- Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF)LINK
The Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) builds sustainable ecosystems and fosters a community around projects that orchestrate containers as part of a microservices architecture.
Kubernetes is a CNCF project.[+]
The CNCF is a sub-foundation of the Linux Foundation. Its mission is to make cloud native computing ubiquitous.
- Cluster OperationsLINK
The work involved in managing a Kubernetes cluster: managing day-to-day operations, and co-ordinating upgrades.[+]
Examples of cluster operations work include: deploying new Nodes to scale the cluster; performing software upgrades; implementing security controls; adding or removing storage; configuring cluster networking; managing cluster-wide observability; and responding to events.
- Cluster OperatorLINK
A person who configures, controls, and monitors clusters.[+]
Their primary responsibility is keeping a cluster up and running, which may involve periodic maintenance activities or upgrades.Note: Cluster operators are different from the Operator pattern that extends the Kubernetes API.
- Container Storage Interface (CSI)LINK
The Container Storage Interface (CSI) defines a standard interface to expose storage systems to containers.[+]
CSI allows vendors to create custom storage plugins for Kubernetes without adding them to the Kubernetes repository (out-of-tree plugins). To use a CSI driver from a storage provider, you must first deploy it to your cluster. You will then be able to create a Storage Class that uses that CSI driver.
A tool that lets you use OCI container runtimes with Kubernetes CRI.[+]
Deploying CRI-O allows Kubernetes to use any OCI-compliant runtime as the container runtime for running Pods, and to fetch OCI container images from remote registries.
If you, as cluster operator, destroy a Pod that belongs to an application, Kubernetes terms that a voluntary disruption. If a Pod goes offline because of a Node failure, or an outage affecting a wider failure zone, Kubernetes terms that an involuntary disruption.
See Disruptions for more information.
- Downstream (disambiguation)LINK
May refer to: code in the Kubernetes ecosystem that depends upon the core Kubernetes codebase or a forked repo.[+]
- In the Kubernetes Community: Conversations often use downstream to mean the ecosystem, code, or third-party tools that rely on the core Kubernetes codebase. For example, a new feature in Kubernetes may be adopted by applications downstream to improve their functionality.
- In GitHub or git: The convention is to refer to a forked repo as downstream, whereas the source repo is considered upstream.
- Dynamic Volume ProvisioningLINK
Allows users to request automatic creation of storage Volumes.[+]
Dynamic provisioning eliminates the need for cluster administrators to pre-provision storage. Instead, it automatically provisions storage by user request. Dynamic volume provisioning is based on an API object, StorageClass, referring to a Volume Plugin that provisions a Volume and the set of parameters to pass to the Volume Plugin.
- Ephemeral ContainerLINK[+]
If you want to investigate a Pod that's running with problems, you can add an ephemeral container to that Pod and carry out diagnostics. Ephemeral containers have no resource or scheduling guarantees, and you should not use them to run any part of the workload itself.
FlexVolume is an interface for creating out-of-tree volume plugins. The Container Storage Interface is a newer interface which addresses several problems with FlexVolumes.[+]
FlexVolumes enable users to write their own drivers and add support for their volumes in Kubernetes. FlexVolume driver binaries and dependencies must be installed on host machines. This requires root access. The Storage SIG suggests implementing a CSI driver if possible since it addresses the limitations with FlexVolumes.
- Helm ChartLINK
A package of pre-configured Kubernetes resources that can be managed with the Helm tool.[+]
Charts provide a reproducible way of creating and sharing Kubernetes applications. A single chart can be used to deploy something simple, like a memcached Pod, or something complex, like a full web app stack with HTTP servers, databases, caches, and so on.
- Horizontal Pod AutoscalerLINK별칭:HPA
An API resource that automatically scales the number of Pod replicas based on targeted CPU utilization or custom metric targets.[+]
A CLI tool that helps you create, destroy, upgrade and maintain production-grade, highly available, Kubernetes clusters.[+]Note: kops has general availability support only for AWS. Support for using kops with GCE and VMware vSphere are in alpha.
kopsprovisions your cluster with:
- Fully automated installation
- DNS-based cluster identification
- Self-healing: everything runs in Auto-Scaling Groups
- Limited OS support (Debian preferred, Ubuntu 16.04 supported, early support for CentOS & RHEL)
- High availability (HA) support
- The ability to directly provision, or to generate Terraform manifests
You can also build your own cluster using Kubeadm as a building block.
kopsbuilds on the kubeadm work.
A continuously active contributor in the K8s community.[+]
Members can have issues and PRs assigned to them and participate in special interest groups (SIGs) through GitHub teams. Pre-submit tests are automatically run for members' PRs. A member is expected to remain an active contributor to the community.
An entity in the Kubernetes system. The Kubernetes API uses these entities to represent the state of your cluster.[+]
A Kubernetes object is typically a “record of intent”—once you create the object, the Kubernetes control plane works constantly to ensure that the item it represents actually exists. By creating an object, you're effectively telling the Kubernetes system what you want that part of your cluster's workload to look like; this is your cluster's desired state.
- Operator patternLINK[+]
You can extend Kubernetes by adding controllers to your cluster, beyond the built-in controllers that come as part of Kubernetes itself.
If a running application acts as a controller and has API access to carry out tasks against a custom resource that's defined in the control plane, that's an example of the Operator pattern.
- Persistent VolumeLINK
An API object that represents a piece of storage in the cluster. Available as a general, pluggable resource that persists beyond the lifecycle of any individual Pod.[+]
PersistentVolumes (PVs) provide an API that abstracts details of how storage is provided from how it is consumed. PVs are used directly in scenarios where storage can be created ahead of time (static provisioning). For scenarios that require on-demand storage (dynamic provisioning), PersistentVolumeClaims (PVCs) are used instead.
- Persistent Volume ClaimLINK[+]
Specifies the amount of storage, how the storage will be accessed (read-only, read-write and/or exclusive) and how it is reclaimed (retained, recycled or deleted). Details of the storage itself are described in the PersistentVolume object.
- Platform DeveloperLINK
A person who customizes the Kubernetes platform to fit the needs of their project.[+]
A platform developer may, for example, use Custom Resources or Extend the Kubernetes API with the aggregation layer to add functionality to their instance of Kubernetes, specifically for their application. Some Platform Developers are also contributors and develop extensions which are contributed to the Kubernetes community. Others develop closed-source commercial or site-specific extensions.
- Pod Disruption BudgetLINK별칭:PDB
A Pod Disruption Budget allows an application owner to create an object for a replicated application, that ensures a certain number or percentage of Pods with an assigned label will not be voluntarily evicted at any point in time. PDBs cannot prevent an involuntary disruption, but will count against the budget. [+]
A Pod Disruption Budget allows an application owner to create an object for a replicated application, that ensures a certain number or percentage of Pods with an assigned label will not be voluntarily evicted at any point in time. PDBs cannot prevent an involuntary disruption, but will count against the budget.
An API object that injects information such as secrets, volume mounts, and environment variables into Pods at creation time.[+]
This object chooses the Pods to inject information into using standard selectors. This allows the podspec definitions to be nonspecific, decoupling the podspec from environment specific configuration.
In computing, a proxy is a server that acts as an intermediary for a remote service.[+]
A client interacts with the proxy; the proxy copies the client's data to the actual server; the actual server replies to the proxy; the proxy sends the actual server's reply to the client.
You can run kube-proxy as a plain userland proxy service. If your operating system supports it, you can instead run kube-proxy in a hybrid mode that achieves the same overall effect using less system resources.
A whole-number representation of small or large numbers using SI suffixes.[+]
Quantities are representations of small or large numbers using a compact, whole-number notation with SI suffixes. Fractional numbers are represented using milli units, while large numbers can be represented using kilo, mega, or giga units.
For instance, the number
1.5is represented as
1500m, while the number
1000can be represented as
1M. You can also specify binary-notation suffixes; the number 2048 can be written as
The accepted decimal (power-of-10) units are
k(kilo, intentionally lowercase),
The accepted binary (power-of-2) units are
Stores sensitive information, such as passwords, OAuth tokens, and ssh keys.[+]
Allows for more control over how sensitive information is used and reduces the risk of accidental exposure, including encryption at rest. A Pod references the secret as a file in a volume mount or by the kubelet pulling images for a pod. Secrets are great for confidential data and ConfigMaps for non-confidential data.
- Security ContextLINK[+]
securityContext, you can define: the user that processes run as, the group that processes run as, and privilege settings. You can also configure security policies (for example: SELinux, AppArmor or seccomp).
PodSpec.securityContextsetting applies to all containers in a Pod.
- shuffle shardingLINK
A technique for assigning requests to queues that provides better isolation than hashing modulo the number of queues.[+]
We are often concerned with insulating different flows of requests from each other, so that a high-intensity flow does not crowd out low-intensity flows. A simple way to put requests into queues is to hash some characteristics of the request, modulo the number of queues, to get the index of the queue to use. The hash function uses as input characteristics of the request that align with flows. For example, in the Internet this is often the 5-tuple of source and destination address, protocol, and source and destination port.
That simple hash-based scheme has the property that any high-intensity flow will crowd out all the low-intensity flows that hash to the same queue. Providing good insulation for a large number of flows requires a large number of queues, which is problematic. Shuffle sharding is a more nimble technique that can do a better job of insulating the low-intensity flows from the high-intensity flows. The terminology of shuffle sharding uses the metaphor of dealing a hand from a deck of cards; each queue is a metaphorical card. The shuffle sharding technique starts with hashing the flow-identifying characteristics of the request, to produce a hash value with dozens or more of bits. Then the hash value is used as a source of entropy to shuffle the deck and deal a hand of cards (queues). All the dealt queues are examined, and the request is put into one of the examined queues with the shortest length. With a modest hand size, it does not cost much to examine all the dealt cards and a given low-intensity flow has a good chance to dodge the effects of a given high-intensity flow. With a large hand size it is expensive to examine the dealt queues and more difficult for the low-intensity flows to dodge the collective effects of a set of high-intensity flows. Thus, the hand size should be chosen judiciously.
- SIG (special interest group)LINK
Community members who collectively manage an ongoing piece or aspect of the larger Kubernetes open source project.[+]
Members within a SIG have a shared interest in advancing a specific area, such as architecture, API machinery, or documentation. SIGs must follow the SIG governance guidelines, but can have their own contribution policy and channels of communication.
- Storage ClassLINK
A StorageClass provides a way for administrators to describe different available storage types.[+]
StorageClasses can map to quality-of-service levels, backup policies, or to arbitrary policies determined by cluster administrators. Each StorageClass contains the fields
reclaimPolicy, which are used when a Persistent Volume belonging to the class needs to be dynamically provisioned. Users can request a particular class using the name of a StorageClass object.
sysctlis a semi-standardized interface for reading or changing the attributes of the running Unix kernel.
On Unix-like systems,
sysctlis both the name of the tool that administrators use to view and modify these settings, and also the system call that the tool uses.
Container runtimes and network plugins may rely on
sysctlvalues being set a certain way.
- Upstream (disambiguation)LINK
May refer to: core Kubernetes or the source repo from which a repo was forked.[+]
- In the Kubernetes Community: Conversations often use upstream to mean the core Kubernetes codebase, which the general ecosystem, other code, or third-party tools rely upon. For example, community members may suggest that a feature is moved upstream so that it is in the core codebase instead of in a plugin or third-party tool.
- In GitHub or git: The convention is to refer to a source repo as upstream, whereas the forked repo is considered downstream.
- Volume PluginLINK
A Volume Plugin enables integration of storage within a Pod.[+]
A Volume Plugin lets you attach and mount storage volumes for use by a Pod. Volume plugins can be in tree or out of tree. In tree plugins are part of the Kubernetes code repository and follow its release cycle. Out of tree plugins are developed independently.
- WG (working group)LINK
Facilitates the discussion and/or implementation of a short-lived, narrow, or decoupled project for a committee, SIG, or cross-SIG effort.[+]
- 네트워크 폴리시(Network Policy)LINK
파드 그룹들이 서로에 대한 그리고 다른 네트워크 엔드포인트에 대한 통신이 어떻게 허용되는지에 대한 명세이다.[+]
네트워크 폴리시는 어떤 파드들의 연결을 서로 허용할지, 어떤 네임스페이스가 통신 가능하도록 허용할지, 더 상세하게는 어떤 포트 번호에 각 정책을 시행할지도 선언적으로 구성할 수 있게 도와준다.
NetworkPolicy리소스는 파드를 선택하고 선택된 파드에 어떤 트래픽을 허용할지 명시하는 규칙을 정의하기 위해서 레이블을 사용한다. 네트워크 폴리시는 네트워크 프로바이더에 의해 제공되는 네트워크 플러그인 지원에 의해 구현된다. 네트워크 리소스를 그것을 구현하는 컨트롤러 없이 생성하는 것은 아무런 효과가 없음을 주의하기 바란다.
파드 집합의 디플로이먼트와 스케일링을 관리하며, 파드들의 순서 및 고유성을 보장한다 .[+]
디플로이먼트와 유사하게, 스테이트풀셋은 동일한 컨테이너 스펙을 기반으로 둔 파드들을 관리한다. 디플로이먼트와는 다르게, 스테이트풀셋은 각 파드의 독자성을 유지한다. 이 파드들은 동일한 스팩으로 생성되었지만, 서로 교체는 불가능하다. 다시 말해, 각각은 재스케줄링 간에도 지속적으로 유지되는 식별자를 가진다.
스토리지 볼륨을 사용해서 워크로드에 지속성을 제공하려는 경우, 솔루션의 일부로 스테이트풀셋을 사용할 수 있다. 스테이트풀셋의 개별 파드는 장애에 취약하지만, 퍼시스턴트 파드 식별자는 기존 볼륨을 실패한 볼륨을 대체하는 새 파드에 더 쉽게 일치시킬 수 있다.
쿠버네티스에서 컨트롤러는 클러스터 의 상태를 관찰 한 다음, 필요한 경우에 생성 또는 변경을 요청하는 컨트롤 루프이다. 각 컨트롤러는 현재 클러스터 상태를 의도한 상태에 가깝게 이동한다.[+]
- 클라우드 공급자LINK별칭:Cloud Service Provide
클라우드 컴퓨팅 플랫폼을 제공하는 사업자 또는 다른 조직[+]
클라우드 공급자, 때로는 클라우드 서비스 공급자(CSP) 부르며, 클라우드 컴퓨팅 플랫폼 또는 서비스를 제공한다.
많은 클라우드 공급자들은 관리되는 인프라를 제공한다(이를 Infrastructure as a Service 또는 IaaS 라 부른다). 관리되는 인프라를 통해 클라우드 공급자는 서버, 스토리지 그리고 네트워킹을 담당하고 쿠버네티스 클러스터 실행과 같은 계층을 관리한다.
사용자는 쿠버네티스를 관리되는 서비스로 찾을 수 있다. 때로는 이것을 Platform as a Service 또는 PaaS라 부른다. 관리되는 쿠버네티스를 사용하면 클라우드 공급자가 쿠버네티스 컨트롤 플레인만 아니라, 노드와 연관되는 인프라(네트워킹, 스토리지 그리고 로드밸런서와 같은 기타 요소) 를 책임진다.